Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (24)
Critical thinking is about evaluating ___?
Beliefs --> which beliefs are worth believing?
Example of a belief
1. The earth is round
2. Toronto is the capital of Canada
Where do beliefs come from
- Parents & family
- TV, movies
- Reading books & magazines
Critical thinking is ______?
The systematic evaluation or beliefs, statements by rational standards
What is logic?
- Formal logic: a set of symbolisms for representing and examining logical relations
- Informal logic: the study of rules, guidelines and techniques
The basic conceptual toolbox of critical thinking
AKA a "claim"
- An assertion that something is or is not the case
ie. "Taxes are too high"
Statements must be _____?
True or false
Can be used as premises and conclusions
Examples of non-statements
Purpose of arguments
- intended to persuade
- explore the implications
A statement given as a reason in support of another statements
A statement that premises are used to support
Premises versus conclusions
- Conclusion: What the speaker wants the audience to accept
- The premises state reasons for the audience to accept that conclusion
Examples of premises & conclusions
Premise: "I got sick when I ate there"
Conclusion: " You should avoid that restaurant"
Rules of thumb about arguments
1. A weak argument is still an argument
2. Premises are still premises
Two ways to question an argument
1. Question the premises
2. Question the reasoning process leading from premises to conclusion
The process of reasoning from premises to conclusion
ie. "Based on these tests, it seems safe to infer that it's safe to drink the water"
Difference between an argument and an explanation
Explanation: tells us WHY something happened.
Argument: why we should BELIEVE a statement is true
Can explanations be a part of arguments?
How to recognize an argument?
- Look for a conclusion + supporting premises
- Look for indicator words
- Because, since, given that, due to the fact that etc.
- therefore, so, we can conclude that, thus, it follows that etc.
Series of statements to show why an accepted fact is the case (NOT an argument)