Chapter 1-3 Flashcards Preview

Intro to Microbiology Biol 357 > Chapter 1-3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1-3 Deck (25):
1

Who is Robert Hooke?

An English microscopist, who in 1665, noted the '"microscopical mushroom'" which was so detailed that it was later identified as bread mold. This scientist established instructions to make a single lens microscope.

2

Who is Francesco Redi?

An Italian biologist and physician, who in 1668 challenged spontaneous generation. This scientist proved maggots came from fly eyes using a gauze experiment. ~200 years later conclusive evidence was given.

3

Who is Antony van Leeuwenhoek?

A Dutch Fabric Merchant who in 1673 created a single lens microscope made of a handle, focus screw, specimen holder, and lens with 300x magnification. This scientist determined that there are 2 types o of microbes: acellular and microorganism.

4

Who is Carl Linnaues?

A Swedish Botanist, Zoologist, and Physician who in the 1700s developed the binomial system of nomenclature. The first part of the name is the genus, the second part the species.

5

Who is John Needham?

A scientist and Catholic Priest who in 1749 proved microorganisms grow even with brief boiling. This scientist suggested microorganisms arise spontaneously and used corks during experiments, but this causes issues because corks are porous.

6

What event began in 1775 between Needham and Spallanzani?

American Revolution.

7

Who is Lazzaro Spallanzani?

An animal physiologist and priest who in 1776 disproved Needham, but his processes differed so the controversy continued. This scientist boiled brothers longer, melted glass necks to ensure sterility by keeping air out, and noted that cracked glass led to growth noted by broth cloudiness.

8

How long did the American Revolution last?

1775-1783

9

What was introduced in 1796?

Smallpox vaccination

10

How long did the Civil War last?

1861-1865

11

Who is Louis Pasteur?

A French chemist who in 1861 disproved the 'vital force' theory which led to the theory of bio-genesis. This scientist was known as the Father of Modern Microbiology and he established that air contains microorganisms which he proved with a cotton plug experiment.

12

Lister published what in 1867?

First work on antiseptic surgery published.

13

Who is John Tyndall?

An English pysicist who in 1876 verified Pasteurs works. This scientist's works provided that various types of broth have different sterilization boiling times and that there are two types of cells: heat-resistant and non-heat-resistant.

14

Who is Ferdinand Cohn?

A German botanist who in 1876 discovered Endospores are both dormant and heat-resistant. Note that endospores were not were not present in Pasteur's experiments because conditions differed.

15

Who is Robert Koch?

A German physician and microbiologist who in 1881 introduced pure culture techniques. A bounder of bacteriology.

16

Who is Hans Christian Gram?

A Danish bacteriologist who in 1884 described the Gram stain technique.

17

Who is Dmitri Ivanovsky?

A Russian botanist who in 1892 published the first description of a virus.

18

How long was WW1?

1914-1918

19

What occurred in 1918?

Worldwide influenza epidemic

20

Who is Sir Alexander Fleming?

A Scottish biologist who in 1929 discovered penicillin.

21

How long was WW2?

1939-1945

22

Which group of people discovered the structure of DNA in 1953?

Watson, Crick, Franklin, and Wilkins.

23

Who is Carl Woese?

An American microbiologist and biophysicist who in 1977 classified organisms into 3 domains.

24

What was eradicated in 1980?

Smallpox

25

What are the 5 steps of the scientific method?

1. Observe x, develop a question about x
2. Establish a hypothesis about x thats testable
3. Experiment -> Collect data
4. Draw Conclusion
5. Report 'methods, results, and conclusions'