Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (57):
Describe the first and second industrial revolutions.
First: revolutionized the way people work by introducing machines and new organizational forms.
-Second: revolutionizing the way people work through networking and data communications.
When did Samuel Morse invent the telegraph system?
When did Bell develop concept of the phone?
When was ATT incorporated?
When was control transferred from ICC to the FCC
When was ATT divided into two parts?
What is net neutrality?
-for a given type of content, all content providers are treated the same.
What is data communications?
-The movement of computer information from one point to another by means of electrical or optical transmission systems.
What is telecommunications?
-transmission of voice and video as well as data
What is a server?
-stores data or software that can be accessed by clients.
What is a client?
-the input-output hardware device at the user's end of a communication circuit.
-provides users with access to the network and the data and software on the server.
What is a circuit?
-the pathway through which the messages travel.
What is a router?
-connects two or more networks.
What is a file server?
-stores data and software that can be used by computers on the network.
What is a print server?
-connects to a printer and manages all printing requests from the clients on the network.
What is a web server?
-stores documents and graphics that can be accessed from any web browser.
What is a LAN?
-group of computers located in the same general area.
-clearly defined small area
-one floor or work area, building or group of buildings.
What is a Backbone Network(BN)?
-larger, central network connecting several LANs, other BNs, MANs and WANs.
-hundreds of feet to several miles.
What is a MAN?
-connects LANs and BNs located in different areas to each other and to WANs.
-3 to 30 miles.
What is a WAN
-connects BNs and MANs.
-leased circuits from IXCs.
-hundreds or thousands of miles
-64 Kbps to 10 Gbps.
What is an intranet?
-Lan that uses same technologies as internet but open only to those inside the organization.
What is an extranet?
-provided to invited users outside the organization who access it over the Internet.
What does OSI model stand for?
Open Systems Interconnection reference model.
Who created the OSI model?
-the International Organization for Standardization(ISO)
Describe layer 1. OSI
physical layer: concerned primarily with transmitting data bits(ones and zeros) over a communications circuit.
-defines transmission rules such as voltages, # bits sent per second and physical format of cable and connector.
Describe layer 2 OSI
Data link layer: manages the physical transmission circuit in layer 1.
-transforms it into a circuit that is free of transmission errors.
-creates and recognizes message boundaries,
-error detection and correction.
-decides when device can transmit.
Describe layer 3 OSI
Network layer. performs routing and logical addressing.
Describe layer 4. OSI
Transport layer: deals with end-to-end issues.
-procedure for entering and departing from the network.
-establishes, maintains, and terminates logical connections for the transfer of data.
-break larger transmission into smaller packets.
-also performs error checking.
Describe layer 5. OSI
Session layer:managing and structuring sessions.
-arrange for all desired and required services between session participants.
-orderly way to end the session.
Describe OSI layer 6
Presentation: formats the data for presentation to the user.
-displaying formatting and editing user inputs and outputs.
-data compression, translation between data formats, screen formatting.
Describe OSI layer 7
application layer: end user's access to the network.
-provides a set of utilities for application programs.
-network monitoring and network management.
What is the Internet model.
-dominates current hardware and software .-five layers.
Describe Intenet Layer 1
Physical: physical correlation between the sender and the receiver.
-transfer a series of electrical, radio or light signals through the circuit.
-specifies the type of connection and signals.
Describe Internet Layer 2.
-Data link: responsible for moving a message from one computer to the next computer.
-controls the physical layer by deciding when to transmit messages over the media.
-formats messages by indicating where they start and end.
-detects and may correct any errors that have occurred during transmission.
Describe internet layer 3
Network layer: performs routing.
-finds the address of that computer if it doesn't already know it.
Describe internet layer 4.
-Transport layer: Responsible for linking the application layer software to the network and establishing end-to-end connections between the sender and receiver.
-breaks long messages into several smaller messages and recombines.
-detect lost messages and request they be resent.
Describe internet layer 5.
application layer: application software used by the network user. User's access to the network.
-defines what messages are sent over the network.
What is a hardware layer?
the physical and data link layer.
What is the internetwork layer?
-the transport and network layers.
What is a protocol?
-a set of rules that define what the layer will do and provides a clearly defined set of messages that software at the layer needs to understand.
What is an example of a PDU at the application layer?
What is an example of a PDU at the Transport layer?
What is an example of a PDU at the network layer?
What is an example of a PDU at the Data link layer?
What is an example of a physical layer PDU.
-there isn't one, only bits.
What is an advantage of using layers?
-easy to develop new software.
What is a standard?
-defines a set of rules called protocols that explain exactly how hardware and software that conform to the standard are required to operate.
What is a disadvantage of layers?
-PDUs add to the total amount of data that must be sent.
What is a de juro standard?
-developed by an official industry or government body.
What is a de facto standard?
-those that emerge in the marketplace and are supported by several vendors but have no official standing.
Describe the de juro standardization process.
-application, identification of choices, and acceptance.
What is the ITU-T
International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunications.
-based in geneva.
What is ANSI
American National Standards Institute.
What is broadband?
-high speed communication circuits.
what is convergence?
-the integration of voice, video, and data communication.
What is an application service provider?
-develops a specific systems and companies purchase the service without ever installing the stystem on their own computers.