Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (43):
1

Behaviorism

science that focuses on observable behavior only

2

Bio-psychological Perspective

attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body such as hormones and activity of the nervous system

3

Case Study

Study of an individual in great detail

4

Cognitive Neuroscience

study of the physical changes in the brain and the nervous system during thinking.

5

Cognitive Perspective

modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.

6

Control Group

Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment

7

Correlation

measure of relationship between two variables

8

Correlation Coefficient

number from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and the direction of the correlation.

9

Critical thinking

reasonable judgment about claims

10

Dependent Variable

variable in the experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subject

11

Double-Blind Study

the experimenter or the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group

12

Evolutionary Perspective

focuses on the biological bases of the universal mental characteristics that all humans share.

13

Experiment

manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result

14

Experimental group

subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable.

15

Experimenter effect

tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study.

16

Functionalism

focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play

17

Gestalt psychology

focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures

18

Humanistic perspective

perspective that emphasizes human potential and the idea that people have the freedom to choose their own destiny.

19

Hypothesis

tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations.

20

Independent variable

variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.

21

Naturalistic observation

study in which the researcher observes people or animals in their normal environment.

22

Objective introspection

the process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities.

23

Observer bias

tendency of observers to see what they expect to see

24

Observer effect

tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed

25

Operational definition

definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured.

26

Participant observation

the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed.

27

Placebo effect

the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior.

28

Population

the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested

29

Psychiatric social worker

focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse.

30

Psychiatrist

a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.

31

Psychoanalysis

the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud.

32

Psychoanalyst

either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis.

33

Psychodynamic perspective

modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations.

34

Psychologist

professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology.

35

Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

36

Random assignment

assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly

37

Replicate

, repeating a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results

38

Representative sample

randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects.

39

Scientific method

system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced.

40

Single-blind study

study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group

41

Sociocultural perspective

perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.

42

Structuralism

focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind.

43

Survey

study conducted by asking a series of questions to a group of people.