Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (25)
What are the charges of the atoms?
Protons: positively charges
Electrons: negatively charged
Describe the masses of the subatomic particles:
Electrons almost: 0
How do you know how many protons are in an atom?
Same as the number of electrons
What is an ion?
An atom that has lost or gained electrons
What is an element?
A substance made out of only one type of atom.
What elements are do these symbols represent?
Fe Pb Mg
What is the same about all the elements in the same group in the periodic table?
They all have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
What is the same about elements in the same period?
They have the same amount of shells
What happens when elements have full outer shells?
They are stable/unresctive
What is the top number on the element?
The mass number,
(The. Umber of protons and neutrons)
What is the bottom number?
The atomic number
(Number of protons)
How do you find the number of neutrons?
Subtract the atomic number from the proton number
What are special about the elements in groups 1&2?
They are very reactive
What is special about the elements in between groups 2&3?
They are the transition metals
What is special about some elements form groups 3 to 7?
They are non metals
What is special about the elements in group 0?
They are noble gasses
(They have full outer shells)
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held in the first 3 shells?
2 8 8
What is a compound?
Two or more element that are chemically bonded together
What do non metals do when they react?
What do metals do when the react?
Non metals gain electrons(forms negatively charged ions)
Electrons loose electrons (form positively changed ions)
The opposite charges mean that they are strongly attracted to each other
Describe the limestone cycle
Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate.
When it is heated it becomes calcium oxide.
When water is added to it it becomes calcium hydroxide.
When co2 is bubbled through it it becomes calcium carbonate again.
What is a use of calcium hydroxide?
Test for c02
How is cement made?
It is heated in a kiln with clay to make cement
How is mortar made?
Cement mixed with sand and water
How do you make concrete
Mix cement with sand and aggregate to make concrete