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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (25)
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1

Discontinuous

Quantitative change with periods of rapid transformation followed by plateaus

2

One course development

Universality of change (stage theories)

3

Many courses of development

Importance of context

4

Medieval times

6th-15th century: childhood was regarded as a separate period of life as easily as medieval Europe. Distinguished children under age 7 or 8 from other people and that recognized even young teenagers as not fully mature.

5

The Reformation

16th century - the Puritan belief in original sin gave riser to the view that children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized.

6

John Locke

The Enlightenment (17th century) - served as the forerunner of a 12th century perspective: behaviorism. Children begin with nothing at all. Tabula rasa "blank slate".

7

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Enlightenment (18th century) believed that children are "Nobel savages" naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth.

8

Charles Darwin

Mid 19th century - evolution

9

Normative study of child development

Early 1900s - G. Stanley Hall & Arnold Gesellschaft - measure of box are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.

10

Mental Testing movement

Alfred Binet - also normative.

11

Psychoanalytic Perspective

Conflict between biological drives and social expectations at various stages

+focus on individuals, inspired research in many areas
- vagueness of ideas makes it difficult to test

12

Freud

Psychosexual theory - focus on personality development.

13

Continuous development

quantitative, gradual change

14

Ericson

Psychoanalytic - psychosocial theory; focus on development and the contribution an individual makes to society.

+ looks at development over the lifespan
Recognized the importance of culture

15

Behaviorism and social (cognitive learning theory)

Focus on directly observable events

+contributed to knowledge of how people learn, helpful for eliminating bad behaviors and increasing acceptable behaviors
- underestimated children's contribution to their own development limited environmental influences to the immediate environment.

16

Watson

Classical conditioning responses are learned through associations

17

Skinner

operant conditioning; reinforcers will increase behaviors and punishment will decrease behaviors

18

Bandura

Modeling/imitation/observational learning

19

Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Children construct knowledge as they actively explore and manipulate their worlds

+promoted children as active learners, stimulated vast amount of research
-underestimated competencies of learners and preschoolers
Personable on his tasks can be improved with training

20

Information Processing

Mind is viewed as a system that manipulates symbols as info flows through it

+step-by-step approach is useful for determining where learning or processing difficulty is occurring
- doesn't provide a comprehensive theory, creativity, and imagination

21

Ethology/evolutionary psychology

Focus is on the adaptive or survival value of a behavior and how competencies change with age.

+seeks to understand the entire organism-environment system
- difficult to determine if behavior is truly an adaptation

22

Vygotsky's sociocultural theory

Focus is on how culture and social interactions affect children's behavior and thinking.

+ recognized importance of social and cultural factors
- recognized importance of heredity and brain growth but neglects biological and child's own contributions to development

23

Bio-Ecological systems theory

Views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships

+ incorporates all levels of the environment
- can be difficult to examine all environmental levels in 1 study

24

Dynamic systems theory

The child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills.

+constantly in motion, disruptions cause reorganization, focus on why/how children vary
-can require non-trad Analysis

25

Systematic observations

Naturalistic observations