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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (33):
1

In China during the Qin and Eastern Han dynsasties 221 BC to 220 AD, explain how impressions were used as a means of identification.

Documents of bamboo strips were sealed with Clay. One one side was the persons nam, the other their FP impression. Later when paper was invented it became common to sign using FP impressions

2

What country used fingerprint impressions as proof of a persons identity the earliest? When, and how old are the oldest friction skin impressions found to date?

-China used FP impressions as proof of identity as early as 300 BC
-earthenware estimated to be 6000 years old holds clear FP impressions that are the oldest ones to date

3

It's assumed that trade practices between countries led to other nations adopting FP identification use. What countries and what did they do?

Japan---Domestic law in 702 required that the husband sign with his index finger if he was unable to write his statement
India-- in 1637 use of palmprints used by nobility

4

In 17th and 18th centuries European scientists began publishing their observations of human skin. In his 1684 paper, he was the first to describe friction ridge skin in detail. Who?

Dr Neremiah Grew from London England

5

In 1684 the Italian physiologist Dr Marcello Malpighi published "Concerning the external tactile organs." What is credited with doing?

Malpighi was the first to use the newly invented microscope for medical studies
-he noted that friction ridges increased friction between the skin and surface
-a layer of skin was named after him "stratum Malpighi"

6

Talk about one of the earliest fingerprint records in Canada.

- a petroglyph scratched into a slate rock at Kejimkoojik Lake, Nova Scotia
- an outline of a human hand with scratches for creases, and circular markings on fingertips representative of patterns
-

7

In 1685 Dutch anatomist Govard Bidloo published "Anatomy of the Human body" included details of the skin and papillary ridges of the thumb but failed to address?

It failed to address individualization or permanence

8

In 1788 German doctor JCA Mayer wrote a book that contained detailed drawings of friction ridge skin patterns. It was an atlas of anatomical illustrations. Mayer was the first to state what?

Mayer was the first to write that although specific friction arrangements may be similar, they are never duplicated
Was the first to write that they were UNIQUE

9

In 1823 who's thesis classified fingerprint patterns into nine categories, amd why was his contribution significant?

It was Dr Johannes Purkinje

His contribution of nine pattern types was the precursor to the Henry classification system

10

Although Herman Welcker printed his own hand in 1856 and again in 1897, who is cited as being the first to study the persistence of friction ridge skin?

Sir William James Herschel
-- born in England--moved to India and worked for East India Company--used a mans palmprint on a contract--first official use of friction ridge skin by a European
--took his own prints, family's, friends
--took own prints in 1859,1877,1916 to demonstrate permanence

11


Let's talk about Henry Faulds.

-a medical missionary he opened a hospital in Japan
-conduct research by collecting prints of monkeys and people
-wrote a letter to Charles Darwin in 1880--wrote that friction ridges were unique and classifiable, and alluded to their permanence
-that year in article "Nature" Faulds proposed using friction ridge individualization at crime scenes
-Faulds was the first to publish this in a journal

12

What did Alphonse Bertillion develop while working as a clerk in the Prefecture of Police in Paris in 1879?

-began studying body measurements of various criminals, and developed anthropometry: first used in 1882
-anthropometry is the study of body measurements for identification purposes
-used on criminals across most of the world from 1882-1914--fingerprints were eventually added so a complete anthropometric record included prints, photos, and 11 body measurements

13

In Arthur Kollman's 1883 publication he was the first to identify the....

The first to identify the presence and locations of the volar pads on the hands and feet
Also the first to address the formation of friction ridges on the fetus and the random physical stresses and tensions which may have played a part in their growth

14

Born in England, Sir Francis Galton was a prominent scientist and cousin of Charles Darwin. Talk about his book and what he did.

His book "Finger Prints" was the first book on fingerprints-- in it he established that friction skin was unique and persistent.
Because he was the first to define and name print minutiae, they became known as Galton details: a dividing ridge, the end of a ridge, a short island, and an enclosure

15

Who was employed as a statistician with the La Plata police dept in Argentina, and what were his contributions?

Juan Vucetich-- was promoted to the head of Anthropometric Identification-- recorded criminals prints, and devised his own classification system-- this was the first practical use of of the fingerprint science by law enforcement
-1892- in Buenos Aires two children of Francisca Rojas were murdered--Rojas herself had a throat wound, and Velasquez was accused--Insp Alvarez found Rojas' bloody thumbprint on the door and she confessed ( Insp Alvarez was trained by Vucetich)
-this was the first homicide solved by fingerprint evidence

16

In 1894 who collaborated with Galton and others in India, and what was developed?

Sir Edward Richard Henry developed a method of classification for fingerprints called the Henry System.
In 1897 the government of India sanctioned the sole use of fingerprints as a means of identification for prisoners.

17

What is David Hepburn of Scotland credited with being the first of?

Hepburn is credited with being the first to recognize that friction ridges assist with grasping.

18

Talk about zoologist Harris Hawthorne Wilder

Zoologist Harris Hawthorne Wilder was studying primates and noticed how similar the volar friction ridges were to humans (wrote paper 1897)
For three decades he continued research in morphology (the biological study of the form and structure of living organisms) and the methodology of plantar and palmar dermatoglyphics ( the study of friction ridges)
Wilder was the first to suggest that the centres of disturbance of primate friction ridge formations actually represented the locations of the volar pads

19

Where and in what year was the first criminal case where fingerprint evidence was used to secure a conviction?

Bengal in 1898

20

In December 1900 the Belper Committee in England made what recommendation?

It recommended that all criminal identification records be classified by the Henry Classification System

21

Bertillon is credited with solving the first crime involving latent prints without having a suspect. What are the details?

Murder of Joseph Reibel-- prints in blood on glass--he searched the anthropometric cards and matched it to Henri Scheffer

22

In 1918 Wilder and Bert Wentworth published a book about?

Their book "Personal Identification"--Wilder described the anatomical formations of ridges, and described how random physical stresses and pressures and genetics are responsible for FR formation
-first scientific research supporting third level detail as permanent and unique

23

In 1904 Inez Whipple published "The ventral surface of the mammalian chiridium." What did she research.

-the evolution of friction skin and it's development as mankind evolved
-she theorized that mammals lost hair from scales on volar surfaces-- the scales fused into rows, and over time evolved into ridges to meet the need for grasping
-talked about volar pad location and possible forces that affect ridge growth

-the evolution of friction skin and it's development as mankind evolved
-she theorized that mammals lost hair from scales on volar surfaces-- the scales fused into rows, and over time evolved into ridges to meet the need for grasping
-talked about volar pad location and possible forces that affect ridge growth

-the evolution of friction skin and it's development as mankind evolved
-she theorized that mammals lost hair from scales on volar surfaces-- the scales fused into rows, and over time evolved into ridges to meet the need for grasping
-talked about volar pad location and possible forces that affect ridge growth

-the evolution of friction skin and it's development as mankind evolved
-she theorized that mammals lost hair from scales on volar surfaces-- the scales fused into rows, and over time evolved into ridges to meet the need for grasping
-talked about volar pad location and possible forces that affect ridge growth

24

Why was the Thomas Jennings murder case of 1910 a landmark legal case?

It was a landmark case because it was the first American appellate case regarding the admissibility of fingerprint expert testimony.
Edward Foster was one of four experts to testify.

25

First fingerprint evidence conviction in Canada.

In 1914 Peter Caracatch and Gregory Parachique were convicted after their fingerprints were found at the scene of a break-in to a CPR station in Petawawa Ontario

26

What were Dr Edmond Locard's contributions?

- he was a student of Bertillion--in 1914 worked as director of police lab in Lyon--wrote an article that explained the theory of poroscopy
-

27

Discuss Dr Harold Cummins' contributions.

-1943 published a book--great deal of research on friction ridge skin by examining fetuses in varying stages
-he noted that volar pad regression takes place almost concurrently with the beginning of friction ridge development-the size, location, growth, and configuration of the volar pad affects the friction ridge patterns

28

In 1952 dr Alfred Hale made which contributions?

-studied cross- sections of fetal skin--described the formation of friction ridges during fetal development and the differential growth of friction ridges which is the major premise of friction ridge identification

29

In 1976 what was the main contribution from Dr Michio Okajima's work?

He studied incipient ridges which appear as smaller ridges

30

In 1991 What did Dr William Babbler contribute.

He reviewed prior work by other scientists, and researched the "prenatal relationship" between epidermal ridge dimension and bone dimension of the hand.

31

Edward Foster of the Dominion Police

As a Constable in 1904 attended Worlds Fair in St Louis--intrigued by fingerprint presentation from Scotland Yard -- returned to Canada and was instrumental in creation of national fingerprint bureau opened in 1911--Foster provided expert fingerprint testimony in Canada and USA

32

In 1984 Brigitte Lacroix published a paper about?

She identified three phases of fetal hand development: 6-10 weeks related to hand shape, 10-13 weeks related to appearance of creases, and 13 weeks onward related to formation of friction ridges......the crease do appear before the ridges

33

Retired Staff Sergeant David Ashbaugh left the RCMP in 2004, and spent over 27 years doing research of the scientific basis of friction ridge comparisons....what else?

--he coined the term "ridgeology" in 1983
--created terms level 1,2,3 detail
--introduced ACEV IN 1980
--sat on SWGFAST
--1999 authored Qualitative-Quantitative Friction Ridge Analysis