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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - 5 terms Deck (67)
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1

Administrative law

Establishes laws between citizens and government agencies and provides certain power to the agencies to enforce these laws and regulations.

2

Common Law

AKA - "Judge made laws" Law of precedents built on a case by case basis and established by citing interpretation of existing laws by judges in previous suits.

3

Criminal Law

Sate or federal government law covering violations of a written criminal code or statute.

4

Defendant

Person or entity sued.

5

Executive branch

President of the United States or the governor of an individual state. Can propose laws, veto laws proposed by the legislature, enforce laws, and establish agencies.

6

Felony

Serious crime punishable by relatively large lines and/or imprisonment for more than 1 year and, in extreme cases, death.

7

Judicial Branch

Federal constitutional court system, one of the 3 parts of the US federal government, interprets legislation and determines its constitutionality and applies it to specific cases. May overrule cases presented on appeal from lower courts.

8

Legislative Branch

The US house of representatives and senate and any similar state legislature that develops statutory law.

9

Malpractice

The failure of a professional to meet the standard of conduct that a reasonable and prudent member of the profession would exercise in similar circumstances, it results in harm.

10

Medical Ethics

Principles based on the medical profession that determine moral behavior.

11

Medical Law

Laws that are prescribed to pertain specifically to the medical field.

12

Misdemeanor

Lesser crime punishable by usually modest fines or penalties established by the state or federal government and/or imprisonment of less than 1 year.

13

Negligence

The failure to use such care as a reasonably prudent and careful person would use under similar circumstances. An act of omission or failure to do what a person of ordinary prudence would have done under similar circumstances.

14

Abuse

A misuse or a maltreatment. In relationships, it is the pattern of misuse or inappropriate treatment systematically to gain control and power over another individual.

15

Americans with disabilities act

Laws enacted in 1990 to protect citizens with disabilities from discrimination.

16

Applied ethics

Application of moral principles and standards to organizations of individuals.

17

Artificial insemination

Injection into the female vagina of seminal fluid, which contains male sperm from a husband, partner, or other donor, to aid in conception.

18

Code of ethics

Standards of behavior, initiated by an employer or organization, defining the acceptable conduct of its members/employees (also called code of conduct).

19

Conscience clause

Regulation or mandate that states that healthcare providers and/or facilities do not have to participate in procedures that are against their beliefs, such as abortions or sterilization procedures.

20

Consumer protection act

Laws and safeguards to protect consumers from fraudulent, unethical, or illegal practices.

21

Control group

Group of subjects in a research study who do not receive any treatment or, in some cases, are given a placebo. In testing, it is the principle of the constant that remains the same to evaluate the changes of a given experiment.

22

Due process

Procedures or actions followed to safeguard individual rights. In the workplace, the process to safeguard an employee if he or she feels his or her rights are in jeopardy.

23

Duty-based ethics

Philosophy of ethics that focuses on performing one's duty to a group, individual, or organization.

24

Employment protection acts

Broad group of acts that govern handling of employees or potential employees. Generally cover the following areas: interviewing, debt collections, interest and charges, equal opportunity employment, disability act, compensation and benefit, antitrust, and anti-kickback.

25

Ethics

Branch of philosophy that relates to morals and moral principles.

26

Fertilization

Assistance in conception, most commonly performed either as artificial insemination or as in vitro fertilization to produce pregnancy.

27

Fraud

Wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain.

28

Gene therapy

Process of splicing or infusing genes to replace malfunctioning genes. Alteration of the DNA of body cells to control production of a particular substance.

29

In vitro fertilization

Process to assist in conception by harvesting an ovum from a woman and combining it with the male's sperm outside of the uterus and then implanting the fertilized embryo back into the woman's uterus.

30

Integrity

Unwavering adherence to an individual's values and principles with dedication to high standards.