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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (41):
1

Autotrophic

Plants can make their own food with light from the sun

2

Heterotrophic

Dependent on plants for their food

3

Cultivated plants

Used/developed by humans to meet specific needs. May die out or readapt to environmental conditions if humans disappeared

(Corn, lettuce, cotton)

4

The cell

Discovered and 1665 by Robert Hooke. The basic building block or unit for plants and animals.

Plant cells are different from animal cells in that they have rigid cell wall made of special materials

5

Prokaryote

An organism of the kingdom Monera. Compromised of the bacteria and cyanobacteria. DNA not organized into chromosomes

6

Eukaryote

Organisms of the protista, fungi, plantae and animalia kingdom.

Cells contain a distinct membrane –bound nucleus. DNA organized into chromosomes

7

Cytoplasmic membrane

The living surface membrane of the cell composed of proteins and lipids. Controls the flow of materials entering and exiting the cell

8

Plasmodesmata

Cytoplasmic strands that connects cells to one another that allow transport of materials

9

Nucleus

The "brain" of the cell, directing cellular functions and containing the genetic code of the plant (DNA) in the chromosomes

10

Cytoplasm

Jelly like substance inside the cytoplasmic membrane in which cellular processes take place.

11

Organelles

Various ones in the cytoplasm. Like a mini organ in each cell. Each with a specific function

I.e. Chloroplasts

12

Chloroplasts

Site of photosynthesis, contain chlorophyll

13

Vacuole

Inner sac that can store materials such as water, minerals, and waste products

14

Mitochondria

An organelle associated with cellular respiration in which glucose manufactured during photosynthesis is transformed into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

15

Ribosome

An organelle that "decodes" mRNA from DNA. Also the site of photosynthesis

16

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

An organelle composed of an interconnected network of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells. It's the site of enzymatic activity.

Rough ER is associated with ribosomes (protein building); smooth ER lacks ribosomes (lipid building)

17

The cell wall

A rigid material (microfibrils) that protects the inner workings of the cells

18

Pectin

Individual cells are connected by a layer of pectin that glued the cells together. This layer is also called the middle Lamella

19

Meristems

Tissues or masses of cells in the plans for all growth happens


There are two types of meristems

20

Apical

Vertical lengthening of plant. "Herbaceous" stays green

Type 1 meristems

21

Lateral

Only in woody plants. Add strength and grows horizontal. Not found in herbaceous plants
Type 2 meristem

22

Gymnosperms

"Naked seed"

Most of these lack a protective enclosure. Seed usually matures on a coma scale. I.e. Conifers, Pines, cyads, ginko Bilboa)

About 1000 species

23

Angiosperms

"Covered seed".
Has flowers with fruits and seeds. Very dominant plants in the world. They are the most successful and advanced plants on earth so many species that the seed is divided into two groups

Over 260,000 species

24

Monocot

A member of A subclass of angiosperms characterized by the presence of one cotyledon

25

Dicot

Subclass of angiosperms characterized by the presence of two cotyledons

26

Cotyledons

The seed leaf that stores food for the embryo to use during germination

Cotyledons wither once first true leaves emerge and become photosynthetic

27

Endosperm

Monocots have a second food structure that stays inside the seed. Food storage tissue

28

Embryo

The miniature plant inside the seeds, containing apical meristems. Preformed "true leaves". Activated when the seedcoat is breached

29

Mitosis

I sell divisional process in which the chromosomes become duplicated

30

Germination

Beginning of growth process

1. The seed imbibes with water and exchanges gases
2. Hormones and enzymes are activated
3. The embryo begins growing and development via mitosis

31

The radical

1st root that emerges during germination

32

The plumule

The first shoot emerges from the seed, breaks through soil surface and begins forming leaves

33

Epigeous germination

The cotyledons are pushed above the ground during germanation.
(Dicots)

34

Hypogeous germination

The cotyledons remain below the ground (monocots)

35

Damping off disease

A collection of fungal and water mold diseases that attack germinating seedlings

Best prevention is to control access moisture around seed and use clean tools and soil

36

Seed dormancy

A protective mechanism that programs the seed not to germinate. Several types of dormancy

Seedcoat dormancy, embryo dormancy, double dormancy

37

Seedcoat dormancy

Coat may be impermeable to water and gases and/or may be resistant to embryo expansion

Natural softening of seedcoats by wind, rain, soil or passing through digestive tract of an animal

Artificial softening by dry scarification(sandpaper), heat treatment, acid scarification

38

Embryo dormancy

Seed won't germinate until conditions are just right, this type of dormancy is overcome by a process called stratification

39

Stratification

Happens only in the winter time. Must be a climate of 34 to 40° seeds are soaked in water then kept moist
Seeds must be exposed to oxygen

40

Scarification

To scratch or edge a seed coat to improve water uptake

Needs to happen and seedcoat dormancy or double dormancy

41

Double dormancy

When plants need scarification first and then stratification. Common in the temperate forest