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1

the structure features of cells

cytology

2

the examination of tissues, groups of specialized cells and materials surrounding them

histology

3

examination of relatively large structures without the aid of a microscope

gross anatomy

4

study of the structure of organ systems

systemic anatomy

5

scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things

physiology

6

the study of the functions of the human body

human physiology

7

condition in which there are specific relationships and functions

organization

8

all chemical reactions of the body

metabolism

9

ability to sense changes and adjust

responsiveness

10

increase in size and/or number of cells

growth

11

changes in an organism over time

development

12

change from general to specific

differentiation

13

change in shape of tissues, organs

morphogenesis

14

new cells or new organisms

reproduction

15

anything that occupies space and has mass

matter

16

the amount of matter in an object

mass

17

the gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass

weight

18

the simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties; composed of atoms of only one kind

element

19

smallest particle of an element that has chemical characteristics of that element; composed of subatomic particles

atom

20

equal to the number of protons in each atom, which is equal to the number of electrons

atomic number

21

number of protons plus number of neutrons

mass number

22

two or more forms of same element with the same number of protons and electrons but different neutron number

isotopes

23

average mass of naturally occuring isotopes

atomic mass

24

two or more atoms chemically combine to form an independent unit H2

molecules

25

a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms chemically combined H2O

compounds

26

determined by adding up atomic masses of its atoms or ions

molecular mass

27

atoms exchange electrons

ionic bonding

28

two or more atoms share electron pairs

covalent bonding

29

an atom loses or gains electrons and becomes charged

ion

30

two atoms share one pair of electrons

single covalent

31

two atoms share four electrons

double covalent

32

electrons shared equally because nuclei attract the electrons equally

nonpolar covalent

33

electrons not shared equally because one nucleus attracts the electrons more than the other does

polar covalent

34

ability or one substance to dissolve in another
ex. sugar or salt dissolves in water

solubility

35

solutions made by the dissociation of cations and anions in water; have capacity to conduct an electric current; currents can be detected by electrodes

electrolytes

36

solutions made by molecules that dissolve in water, but do not dissociate; do not conduct electricity

nonelectrolytes

37

collective term used for the sum of all of the anabolic and catabolic reactions in the body

metabolism

38

two or more reactants chemically combine to form a new and larger product

synthesis reactions

39

large reactant is broken down to form smaller products

decomposition reactions

40

water is split into two parts that contribute to formation of the products

hydrolysis

41

synthetic reaction where water is a product

dehydration

42

chemical reactions in which the reaction can proceed either from reactants to products or from products to reactants

reversible reactions

43

rate of product formation is equal to rate of reactant formation

equilibrium

44

the complete or partial loss of an electron by one substance is accompanied by the gain of that electron by another substance

oxidation reduction reactions

45

the capacity to do work

energy

46

energy stored in chemical bonds; energy that could do work if it were released. breaking chemical bonds releases energy

potential energy

47

does work and moves matter

kinetic energy

48

form of potential energy in the chemical bonds or a substance

chemical energy

49

energy that flows between objects of different temperatures

heat energy

50

substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being permanently changed or depleted

catalysts

51

catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy necessary for reaction to begin

enzymes

52

minimum energy reactants must have to start a chemical reaction

activation energy

53

substances physically but not chemically combined

mixture

54

materials separate unless stirred. sand and water

suspension

55

dispersal of tiny particles through a medium. milk

colloid

56

mixture of liquids, gasses, or solids that are uniformly distributed and chemically combined

solution

57

blood is a what

mixture, solution and colloid

58

a proton donor or any substance that releases hydrogen ions

acid

59

a proton acceptor or any substance that binds to or accepts hydrogen ions

base

60

a greater concentration of hydrogen ions

acidic

61

a greater concentration of hydroxide ions

alkaline or basic

62

physiological pH is what

7.4

63

a compound consisting of a cation other than a hydrogen ion and an anion other than a hydroxide ion

salt

64

a solution of a conjugate acid-base pair in which acid and base components occur in similar concentrations

buffer

65

interferes with active site of enzymes so substrate cannot bind

competitive inhibition

66

changes shape of enzyme so it cannot bind to substrate

noncompetitive inhibition

67

cellular material outside the nucleus but inside plasma membrane

cytoplasm

68

what is cytosol

the fluid portion

69

supports the cell but has to allow for movements like changes in cell shape and movements of cilia

cytoskeleton

70

hollow, made of tubulin; internal scaffold, transport, cell division

microtubules

71

consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments and cytoplasmic inclusions

cytoskeleton

72

actin; structure, support for microvilli, contractility, and movement

microfilaments

73

mechanical strength

intermediate filaments

74

aggregates of chemicals such as lipid droplets, melanin

cytoplasmic inclusions

75

control center of cell; contains most genetic material

nucleus

76

thin threads of DNA and proteins; condenses to form chromosomes

chromatin

77

contains rRNA and proteins; assembly of ribosomal units

nucleolus

78

During cell division, chromatin condenses into pairs of chromatids called ________

chromosomes

79

each pair of chromatids is joined by a ________

centromere

80

sites of protein synthesis; composed of a large and a small subunit; free and attached(to endoplasmic reticulum)

ribosomes

81

endoplasmic reticulum can be what

rough or smooth

82

has attached ribosomes; proteins produced and modified; storage/transport of proteins

rough ER

83

no attached ribosomes; manufactures lipids and CHOs; detoxification and Ca2+

smooth ER

84

interior spaces isolated from rest of cytoplasm

cisternae

85

modification, packaging, distribution of proteins and lipids for secretion or internal use; flattened membrane sacs stacked on each other

golgi apparatus

86

smaller than lysosomes; contain enzymes to break down fatty acids and amino acids-- hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of breakdown, uses catalase to remove hydrogen peroxide

peroxisomes

87

consist of large protein complexes; includes several enzymes that break down and recycle proteins in cell

proteasomes

88

major site of ATP synthesis; increase in number when cell energy requirements increase; contain DNA that codes for some of the proteins needed for mitochondria production

mitochondria

89

inner foldings of inner membrane of mito

cristae

90

substance located in space formed by inner membrane of mito

matrix