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1

Neuroscience

Study of the nervous systeme

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Human behavior

Product of brain activity

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Exons

coding DNA sequences

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Promoters/introns

Regulatory sequences

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Reticular theory

A continuous directly interconnected nerve cell network or reticulum.- Camillo Golgi

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Neuron doctrine

Nerve cells communicate with each-other by means of (synapses) )specialized contacts that are not sites of continuity between cells.- Cajal and Sherrington

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Neurons

-Specialized for electrical signaling over long distances
-process information
-Sense environmental changes
-communicate changes to other neurons
-command body response
-intercellular communication via synapses

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Glia

-Support the signaling functions of neurons
-insulate and nourish neurons
-Essential for repairing nervous system damage
-do not participate directly in synaptic interactions and electrical signaling

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Postsynaptric

Receive signals from the presynaptic axon terminals

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Resting membrane potential

-60mV sometimes -70mV depending on cell

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Inside cell

more negative

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Action potential

+60 mV or positive in general. lets sodium in. all or nothing event

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hypolarization

more negative than before

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sensory systems

Represent information about the state of the organism and its environment

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Motor systems

Organize and generate actions

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Associational systems

link sensory and motor sides of the nervous system

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"higher-order" functions

perception, attention, cognition, emotions, rational thinking, other complex brain functions.

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Proteins in neurons

Actin, tubulin, and myosin

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Dedrites

primary targets for synaptic input from other neurons and are distinguished by high content of ribosomes as well as specific cytoskeletal proteins

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short neurons

Local circuit neurons, interneurons

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Action Potential

Self-regenerating wave of electrical activity that propagate from its point of initiation at the cell body.

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Axon hillock

Point of initiation of action potential

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Voltage-gated Cl- channels

similar to hyperpolarization when potassium leaves the cell. However they act as the modulators for the electrical signaling before action potential

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Myelin

Has effects on speed of electrical signals

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Neuropil

region between nerve cell bodies where most synaptic connectivity occurs

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Afferent neurons

Nerve cells that carry information toward the brain or spinal cord

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Efferent neurons

Nerve cells that carry information away from them brain or spinal cord

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Interneurons (local circuit neurons)

only participate in the local aspects of the circuit