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Define nutrition

A science that studies all the interactions that occur between living organisms and food
Food provides nutrients and energy, which are needed to keep us alive and healthy, to support growth, and to allow reproduction


Define nutrients

Chemical substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes


Define processed foods

Foods that have been specially treated or changed from their natural state. Usually high in saturated fat, sugar, and/or salt


Why is there such a high proportion of children and adults in Canada who are overweight or obese?

Due to the overconsumption of energy (calories)


Define chronic disease

Non-communicable disease that develops slowly over a lifetime and needs continuing medical attention to manage and control such as heart disease or obesity


What is the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)?

An annual survey conducted by government agencies that investigates various aspects of health and well-being in Canada


What is the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS)?

A survey conducted every 2 years and includes useful food & nutrition data. It differs from CCHS as it includes lab measurements as well as questionnaires


Define essential nutrients

Nutrients that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy its needs


Define fortified foods

Foods to which one or more nutrients have been added, typically to replace nutrient losses during processing or to prevent known inadequacies in the Canadian diet


Define natural health products

A category of products regulated by Health Canada that includes vitamin and mineral supplements, amino acids, fatty acids, probiotics, herbal remedies, and homeopathic and other traditional medicines


Why is Lecithin (substance needed for nerve function) not considered an essential nutrient?

Because it can be manufactured in the body in adequate amounts


Define phytochemicals

Substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties


Define zoochemicals

Substances found in animal foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties


What are the 6 classes of nutrients?

Carbs, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals


How can the classes be grouped?

- By whether they provide energy in the body
- By how much is needed in the diet
- By their chemical structure


Define energy-yielding nutrients

Constitute the major portion of most foods and are required in relatively large amounts by the body


What are the energy-yielding nutrients?

Carbs, lipids, and proteins


Define macronutrients

Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts (expressed as kg or g)


Define micronutrients

Nutrients needed in smaller amounts (expressed as mg or μg)


What is an organic vs an inorganic molecule?

Organic molecules contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.


Which nutrients are organic?

Carbs, proteins, lipids, and vitamins


Which nutrients are inorganic?

Minerals and water


How are energy-yielding nutrients measured?

In kilocalories (kcalories/kcals) or kilojoules (kjoules/kJs)


What are starches?

More complex carbs made of many sugars linked together


What are carbs?

Sugars found in sugar, fruit, milk, and starches. Contain 4 kcals/gram


Explain fibre

A carb that cannot be digested and provides very little energy. Important for GI health. Found in veggies, fruits, legumes, and whole grains


Define legumes

The starchy seeds of plants belonging to the pea family. Includes peas, peanuts, soybeans, and lentils


What are lipids?

A concentrated source of energy in food and a lightweight storage form of energy in the body


What are the several types of lipids that are important to nutrition?

Triglycerides, different fatty acids, cholesterol


Define triglycerides

The most abundant lipids in foods and in the body, made up of fatty acids


How do different fatty acids have different health effects?

Diets high in saturated fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Those high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce risks


What can high levels of cholesterol cause?

Can increase risk of heart disease


What are proteins?

Needed for growth and maintenance of body structures and regulation of body processes. Can be used to provide energy. It is not a single substance, different combos of amino acids are linked together to form different types of proteins


What is water?

A nutrient class by itself, it is a macronutrient that doesn't provide energy. It serves as a lubricant, a transport fluid, and a regulator of body temperature


What is the purpose of vitamins?

To regulate body processes. Help the body use the energy from carbs, lipids and proteins. Others functions in other processes


What is the purpose of minerals?

Needed for bone strength, the transport of oxygen, the transmission of nerve impulses, and numerous other functions


Define metabolism

The sum of all chemical reactions that take place in a living organism


Define homeostasis

A physiological state in which a stable internal body environment is maintained


Define malnutrition

Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below what is optimal


Define undernutrition

A form of malnutrition caused by a deficiency of energy or nutrients. May be caused by a deficient intake, increased requirements, or an inability to absorb or use nutrients


What is the most severe form of undernutrition?

Starvation which causes weight loss, poor growth, the inability to reproduce, and possibly death


Define overnutrition

Poor nutritional status resulting from an energy or nutrient intake in excess of what is optimal for health


Define genes

Units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits


Define nutritional genomics/nutrigenomics

The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can effect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health


Define personalized nutrition

The idea that a diet based on the genes an individual has inherited can be used to prevent, moderate, or cure chronic disease


What factors affect our food choices?

- What is available to us
- Where we live
- What is within our budget & compatible with out lifestyle
- What we like
- What is culturally acceptable
- What our emotional & psychological needs are
- What we think we should eat
- How we are influenced by media


Explain food availability

Food availability is affected by geography, socioeconomics, and health status


How are developing countries impacted by food availability?

Dietary choices are often limited to foods produced locally. In more developed countries, they are able to store, transport, and process food


What socioeconomic factors impact food availability?

Income level, living conditions, lifestyle, education


How does food connect to us emotionally and psychologically?

Food represents comfort, love, and security. Comfort food helps us feel better, food can be used as a reward or punishment. It is also an expression and a moderator of emotional states


Define adequacy

A state in which there is a sufficient amount of a nutrient or nutrients in the diet to maintain health


Define nutrient density

An evaluation of the nutrient content of a food in comparison to the kcals it provides