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Flashcards in chapter 1: a first look at anatomy Deck (117):
1

the study of structure

anatomy

2

the scientific discipline that studies the functions of body structures

physiology

3

examines structures that cannot be viewed by the unaided eye

microscopic anatomy

4

investigates the structure and relationships of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye

gross anatomy // macroscopic anatomy

5

study of single body cells and their internal structures

cytology

6

the study of tissues

histology

7

examines the similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species

comparative anatomy

8

investigates the changes in structure within an individual from conception thru maturity

developmental anatomy

9

concerned specifically w developmental changes prior to birth

embryology

10

examines all the structures in a particular region in the body as one complete unit

regional anatomy

11

examines both superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them

surface anatomy

12

studies gross anatomy of each system in the body

systemic anatomy

13

examines all anatomic change resulting from disease

pathologic anatomy

14

studies the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific medical imaging procedures

radiographic anatomy

15

investigates the anatomic landmarks used before and after surgery

surgical anatomy

16

simplest level that involves atoms and molecules

chemical level

17

the smallest units of matter

atoms

18

when 2 or more atoms combine they form a ____

molecule

19

serve as basic units of structure and function in organisms

cells

20

level in which similar cells w common function form

tissue level

21

precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions

tissues

22

different tissue types combine to form an organ at this level

organ level

23

level that consists of related organs that work together

organ system level

24

highest level of structural organization in the body

organismal level

25

a regulatory system that controls body movement, responds to sensory stimuli, and helps control all other systems of the body

nervous system

26

consists of the glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, some of which regulate body and cellular growth, chem levels in the body, and reproductive functions

endocrine system

27

consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels

cardiovascular system

28

transports and filters lymph and initiates an immune response when necessary

lymphatic system

29

responsible for exchange of gases between blood and air in lungs

respiratory system

30

mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products

digestive system

31

filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, expels urine from the body

urinary system

32

produces male sex cells and male hormones, transfers sperm to female

male reproductive system

33

produces female sex cells and female hormones, receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus

female reproductive system

34

organization, metabolism, growth/development, responsiveness, adaptation, regulation, reproduction

characteristics common to all organisms

35

provides protection, regulates body temp, site of cutaneous receptors, synthesizes vit D, prevents water loss

integumentary system

36

provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis, stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments

skeletal system

37

produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract

muscular system

38

position where individual stands upright w feet parallel and flat on floor

anatomical position

39

vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts

coronal plane

40

cuts perpendicularly along long axis of body or organ

transverse plane / cross sectional plane / horizontal plane

41

extends through body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves

midsagittal plane / median plane

42

plane that is parallel to midsagittal plane but either to the left or right

sagittal plane

43

in front of; toward front surface

anterior

44

in back of; toward back surface

posterior

45

at back side of human body

dorsal

46

at belly side of human body

ventral

47

closer to the head

superior

48

closer to feet

inferior

49

at rear or tail end

caudal

50

at head end

cranial

51

toward nose

rostral

52

toward midline of body

medial

53

away from midline of body

lateral

54

on same side

ipsilateral

55

on opposite side

contalateral

56

on the inside

deep / internal

57

on the outside

superficial / external

58

closest to point of attachment to trunk

proximal

59

furthest from point of attachment to trunk

distal

60

region that includes head, neck, trunk

axial region

61

region that includes limbs

appendicular region

62

cephalic

head

63

frontal

forehead

64

orbital

eye

65

nasal

nose

66

oral

mouth

67

cervical

neck

68

buccal

cheek

69

mental

chin

70

deltoid

shoulder

71

axillary

armpit

72

sternal

sternum

73

pectoral

chest

74

mammary

breast

75

brachial

arm

76

antecubital

front of elbow

77

antebrachial

forearm

78

coxal

hip

79

carpal

wrist

80

palmar

palm

81

digital

finger

82

femoral

thigh

83

patellar

kneecap

84

crural

leg

85

pes

foot

86

tarsal

ankle

87

olecranal

elbow

88

gluteal

butt

89

popliteal

back of knee

90

sural

calf

91

calcaneal

heel

92

plantar

sole of foot

93

auricular

ear

94

occipital

back of head

95

tibial

medial aspect of leg

96

ulnar

medial aspect of forearm

97

cavity formed by cranium, houses brain

cranial cavity

98

formed by individual bones of vertebral column, contains spinal cord

vertebral canal

99

arises from a space called coelom that forms during embryonic development

ventral cavity

100

covers external surface of organs

visceral layer

101

2 layered serous membrane that encloses heart

pericardium

102

median space in the thoracic cavity

mediastinum

103

outermost layer that forms sac around heart

parietal pericardium

104

forms hearts external surface

visceral pericardium

105

potential space between parietal and visceral pericardia

pericardial cavity

106

narrow, moist potential space between parietal and visceral layers

pleural cavity

107

superior to an imaginary line drawn between superior aspects of the hip bones

abdominal cavity

108

inferior to an imaginary line drawn between superior aspects of the hip bones

pelvic cavity

109

a moist 2 layered serous membrane that lines abdominopelvic cavity

peritoneum

110

the superior region in the middle column

contains part of liver, part of stomach, duodenum, part of pancreas, both adrenal glands

epigastric region

111

middle region in middle column

contains transverse colon, part of small intestine, branches of blood vessels to lower limbs

umbilical region

112

inferior region in middle column

contains part of small intestine, urinary bladder, sigmoid colon of the large intestine

hypogastric region

113

superior regions lateral to the epigastric region

right and left hypochondriac regions

114

middle regions lateral to umbilical region

right and left lumbar regions

115

inferior regions lateral to hypogastric region

right and left iliac regions

116

diagnostic method that involves listening to sounds produced by various body structures

auscultation

117

using hands to detect organs, masses, or infiltration of a body part during exam

palpation