Chapter 1: An Introduction To The Human Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: An Introduction To The Human Body Deck (42)
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1

What are the six levels of structural organizations in the body and what do each of them do?

1) Chemical Level: Atoms (smallest units and participate in chemical reactions) and molecules (2+ atoms joined). Atoms include C, O, P, S, Ca, H, and N. Molecules include DNA and glucose.
2) Cellular Level: Molecules combined to form cells (smallest living units)
3) Tissue Level: Groups of cells working together to perform a function
4) Organ Level: Different types of tissues joined together
5) System Level: Related organs with a common function (ie digestive system)
6) Organism Level: All parts of the human body function together

2

What are the 4 types of tissues and where are they found?

1) Epithelial: Covers body surface, lines organs and cavities, forms glands
2) Connective: Connects, supports and protects organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues)
3) Muscular: Contracts to make body parts move and generates heat
4) Nervous: Carries info from one body part to another via nerve impulses

3

What are the 6 important life processes?

1) Metabolism
2) Responsiveness
3) Movement
4) Growth
5)Differentiation
6) Reproduction

4

What are the 2 phases of metabolism and what do they do?

1) Catabolism: Breaks down complex substances into simpler ones
2) Anabolism: Builds up complex substances from simpler ones

5

Define interstitial fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) that fills narrow spaces between cells and tissues.

6

Name some places (types of fluid) where ECF is found

Blood plasma (ECF within blood vessels), lymph, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and aqueous humour & vitreous body

7

How is interstitial fluid related to the blood capillaries?

Exchange across thin walls of blood capillaries which provides materials like glucose, oxygen and ions to tissue cells. This movement also removes waste like carbon dioxide from interstitial fluid.

8

What are the 2 systems that implement the negative feedback system?

Nervous and Endocrine systems

9

In a feedback system, what is a controlled condition?

A monitored variable (i.e., BP, body temp, glucose, etc)

10

In a feedback system, what is a stimulus?

Any disruption that changes a controlled condition

11

What are the 3 components of a feedback system?

1) Receptor: A body structure that monitors a controlled condition. Afferent pathway because info flows towards the control centre. Input is in the form of nerve impulses and chemical signals. Like nerve endings in the skin.
2) Control Centre: Usually the brain. Sets a range of acceptable values for the controlled condition, evaluates input, and generates output commands (nerve impulses or hormones/other chemical signals). Efferent pathway because flows away from control centre.
3) Effector: Any body structure that receives a response that changes the controlled condition. I.e., skeletal muscles can act as the effector when your body temperature drops because you shiver which then raises your body temp again.

12

Describe the negative feedback loop

First a stimulus occurs (i.e., increased heat outside). This affects the controlled condition which is monitored by RECEPTORS. The RECEPTORS send nerve impulses or chemical signals to the CONTROL CENTRE which then provides nerve impulses or chemical signals (output) to EFFECTORS. The effectors bring about the response that alters the controlled condition. Homeostasis returns.

13

What is positive feedback?

Strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions

14

Describe an example of a positive feedback loop

Childbirth: Contractions in wall of uterus force baby to cervix, which stretches the cervix (CONTROLLED CONDITION). The RECEPTORS are the stretch-sensitive nerve cells in the cervix which sends nerve impulses to the CONTROL CENTRE (brain). The brain interprets and releases oxytocin (output). The EFFECTORS are the muscles in the walls of the uterus and they contract more forcefully. The responses is that the baby's body stretches the cervix more. Increased stretching of cervix causes release of more oxytocin which results in more stretching... cycle repeats. The birth is the interruption of the cycle... so then the cycle stops.

15

Difference between disorder and disease

Disorder is any abnormality in structure or function, whereas a disease is more specific. It's an illness that's characterized by a set of symptoms and signs

16

Difference between local and systemic disease

Local disease affects only one part of the body or a limited region (such as a sinus infection). A systemic disease affects either the entire body or several parts (ie influenza)

17

Difference between signs and symptoms

Signs are objective and can be observed by clinicians. Symptoms are subjective and is not apparent to the observer.

18

Difference between the prone and supine positions

Prone position is the body lying facedown and supine is the body lying face up

19

Name the principle regions of the body

Head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs

20

LOOK AT FLASHCARD IMAGES FOR DIAGRAMS

LOOK AT FLASHCARD IMAGES FOR DIAGRAMS

21

Describe sagittal, midsagittal and parasagittal planes

Sagittal plane is vertical and divides the body into left and right. Midsagittal divides the body into EQUAL left and right parts. Parasagittal divides the body into UNEQUAL left and right parts. It does not cross the midline.

22

Describe the Frontal Plane

The Frontal Plane divides the body/organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back)

23

Describe the Transverse Plane

Divides the body organ into superior (head) and inferior (legs) parts

24

What is an oblique plane?

Passes through the body at an angle other than 90 degrees. The other planes all pass through at 90 degrees

25

What is a "section"?

Cut of a body/organ along a plane

26

FOR DIFFERENT BODY CAVITIES LOOK AT FLASHCARD IMAGES

FOR DIFFERENT BODY CAVITIES LOOK AT FLASHCARD IMAGES

27

Define Membrane

Membrane is a thin pliable tissue that covers, lines, patricians, or connects structures

28

Define serous membrane and what are the layers?

Associated with body cavities. Does not open to outside. Has two layers. The visceral layer covers and adheres to viscera within cavities. The parietal layer is a thin epithelium that lines the walls of cavities

29

What is serous fluid?

Serous fluid lets viscera to slide somewhat during movement. Like when lungs inflate and deflate when we breathe

30

What is "pleura"?

Serous membrane of pleural cavities. Has viscera and parietal pleura