Chapter 1 - Applied Anatomy And Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Applied Anatomy And Physiology Deck (42):
1

What is the skeleton?

-provides a framework for movement
-made up of bones and different joints

2

Musculoskeletal system

When the muscular system and the skeletal system work together to allow movement at joints

3

Flat bones

-Often quite large
-protect vital organs
*pelvis
*cranium
*scapula
*sternum
*ribs
*clavicle (collar bone)
*jaw bone
*talus

4

Long bones

-enable large movements
*femur (thigh bone)
*tibia (shin bone) & fibula
*metatarsals & phalanges (toes)
*radius & ulna
*humerus
*metacarpals & phalanges (fingers)

5

Short bones

-enable finer controlled movements
*tarsals
*carpals

6

Irregular bones

-shaped to protect
*vertebrae (protect spinal cord)
*patella

7

Articulating bones

Bones that meet at a joint to enable movement

8

Articulating bones at the shoulder

Scapula, clavicle, humerus

9

Articulating bones at the elbow

Humerus, radius, ulna

10

Articulating bones at the hips

Pelvis, femur

11

Articulating bones at the knee

Femur, patella, fibula, tibia

12

Articulating bones at the ankle

Tibia, fibula, talus

13

What are the 6 functions of the skeleton?

1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Shape and structure
5. Blood cell production
6. Storage of minerals

14

Support of the skeleton

-Support for muscles and vital organs
-without support the body would be a mass of soft tissue and unable to move

15

Protection of vital organs

-reduces chance of injury during physical activity

16

Movement

-The ability to move is central to all physical activities
-occurs when muscles contract and pull on bones

17

Shape & structure

-maintains basic form of our body and provides something for muscles to attach onto

18

Blood cell production

-takes place in bone marrow
-red blood cells carry oxygen to working muscles in aerobic activities
-white blood cells fight off infections

19

Storage of minerals

-essential for major body functions
-general health of an athlete

20

Synovial joints

-An area of the body where two or more articulating bones meet.
-Found at the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow and ankle

21

Tendon

Join muscle to bone
(Non elastic cords)

22

Ligament

Join bone to bone
(Elastic fibre that keep joints stable by restricting movement)

23

Joint capsule

Tissue that stops synovial fluid from escaping and encloses, supports and holds bones together

24

Synovial membrane

The lining inside the joint capsule that releases synovial fluid

25

Synovial fluid

A clue and slippery liquid that lubricates the joint and stops bones rubbing together

26

Cartilage

A tough but flexible tissue that acts as a buffer between the bones, preventing bones rubbing together and causing friction

27

Bursae

A sac filled with liquid, floating inside the joint, to reduce friction between tendon and bone

28

Types of synovial joints (freely moveable joints)

1. Hinge
2. Ball and socket

29

Ball and socket joints

-move away from the body and back towards it, can also rotate
-most moveable joint in the body
*hip
*shoulder

30

Hinge joint

-only move in one direction towards and away from each other
*elbow
*knee
*ankle

31

Spirometer trace

Measures air capacity of human lungs

32

Tidal volume

Normal amount of air that can be inhaled or exhaled per breath.
Increases with exercise

33

Expiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume.
Decreases during exercise

34

Inspiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume.
Decreases during exercise

35

Residual volume

Amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
No change during exercise

36

Vital capacity

The largest amount of air that can be forcibly expired after deepest inspiration.

37

Ice bath

Help prevent Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
Help body flush lactic acid away from working muscles
Coldness causes muscles to constrict forcing lactic acid out
When you get out blood vessels dilate allowing oxygenated blood back in

38

Cool down

Light exercise and gentle stretches
Gradually reduce intensity keeps heart rate up to ensure a quick blow flow
Helps turn lactic acid into glucose, CO2 and water

39

Manipulation of diet

Drink water to rehydrate & replace lost fluids
Carbohydrates loading boost performance & maximise amount of glucose in body
Eat protein after training to build and repair muscle quicker for strength

40

Cardio- respiratory system

The respiratory and cardiovascular system working together. Enables the body to breathe and pump blood

41

Respiratory system

Brings in oxygen to produce energy and enable activity and then gets rid of water products like carbon dioxide

42

Order of the respiratory system

Nose & mouth - trachea - lungs - bronchi - bronchioles - alveoli (gaseous exchange)