Flashcards in Chapter 1-Atomic Theory Deck (32):
What are electrons, protons and neutrons all known as?
Define an Ion
When an atom gains or looses an electron, hence the atom becoming charged
Define a Molecules
Two or more atoms that have been chemically combined.`
Do properties change when substances are reduced to the nanoscale?
What does the atomic number represent.
The amount of protons in an atom and also can represent the number of electrons if the atom is uncharged
What does the mass number represent?
Define an isotope
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons, hence having a different atomic mass.
What do isotopes change about that element?
Properties remain the same however they physically look different.
How are isotopes named?
Names by their element then proceeded by their unique mass e.g Oxygen-17
Explain the emission spectrum
-Passing of light that is emitted by an element through a prism.
-They consist of singular coloured lines, each line representing the amount of energy that is being given off at any given time.
Can electrons exists between orbits?
Why do electrons move up an orbit?
They have recieved more energy than they need
What are electrons called when they move up an orbit?
Define "ground state" for an electron
When an electron is situated at its lowest energy state.
What happens when an electron returns back to the ground state from an excited state?
They release energy in the form of light, hence the emission spectrum.
What does the light given off by electrons represent?
Difference between two energy levels.
Define an electron configuration
The arrangement of electrons in the shells
What is the maximum number of electrons that a shell can hold?
What does Niel's Bohr model suggest about electron configuration?
That electrons orbited around the nucleus in definite paths called shells.
Put in smallest to largest, orbital, shell, subshell
Explain the quantum model
Erwin Shcrodinger developed the model that electrons are arranged in shells, subshells and orbitals.
-According to this model an electron is found in an orbital of an atom.
What is an orbital
Portrayed as a cloud with a negative charge
What is the acronym for electron configuration?
What are some exceptions to the order of configuration for electrons
the 4s subshell is filled before the 3d subshell
How can you tell the group and element from the electron configuration?
-The group number is found by the amount of valance electrons in the outer shell.
-The period number is the number of last shell that has been filled with electrons
What are the most stable situation for electrons to be in?
Filled subshells are known to be the most stable, however half-filled subshells are most stable than just partially filled.
Electron Configuration for Chromium
1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^6, 3s^2, 3p^6, 3d^5, 4s^1
Electron Configuration for Copper
1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^6, 3p^6, 3d^10, 4s^1
What evidence does the emission spectra have to support Bohrs model of the atom?
Bohrs model was about energy levels called orbits. He also said electrons can change energy levels and cannot exist in between orbits. As well as this he proposed that electrons can jump from one energy level to another. Emission spectrum shows electrons leaving and returning their orbits and therefore proves his model.
What does the method depend on in reagrds to the extraction of metals?
On the metals reactivity
What reactivity does iron have?