Flashcards in Chapter 8- Organic Chemistry Deck (47):
Molecules that are made up of carbon and hydrogen
Define saturated hydrocarbons
Contain only a single carbon-carbon bond
Define unsaturated hydrocarbons
Have either two or three carbon-carbon bonds
Are hydrocarbons soluble in water?
Are hydrocarbons generally polar or non-polar?
What type of bonding holds hydrocarbons together?
What substances are hydrocarbons soluble in?
Explain the trend in boiling point for hydrocarbons
The boiling point increases when the hydrocarbon chains increase this can be explained due to increased dispersion forces.
Explain the patter in boiling points in regards to branched hydrocarbons
When molecule is branched they have a lower boiling point as the atoms are furthur away from eachother and have less dispersion forces.
Are alkanes saturated or unsaturated?
How many bonds do alkanes contain?
What is the formula for alkanes?
What are the main reactions that occur in alkanes?
-Substitution (with any halogens)
Define an Isomer
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but have a different structural formula
-Structural isomers will have different properties and different names due to their difference in shapes/
What type of bond do alkenes have?
A double bond
What endings do alkenes have?
What reactions do alkenes undertake?
How many bonds do alkyenes have?
What is the ending for alkyne?
What is the formula for alkynes?
What Reactions will alkyne undertake?
Combustion and Addition
Define Cyclic Hydrocarbons
Hyrdocarbons that have formed rings
An example of a unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon
Name the rules for naming hydrocarbons
1. Determine the longest chain
2. Number from which end nearest to a branch, functional group or a triple or double bond
3. Name any branches first with the ending -yl e.g methyl
4. Name side groups alphabetically
5. 2 or me of the same side group is on a different carbon atoms prefxes such as di, tri and tetra are used
What are condensed formulas for hydrocarbons?
Also known as semi-structural formulas used to represent an organic compound in a single line
Define a Functional Group
A functional group is an atom or group of atoms that bind to an organic molecule to give is specific functional prperties
What symbols represent the alcohols?
What is the -OH group called
When naming alchols what is the suffix that is given?
What are the properties of alcohols?
-hydrogen bonding in alchols affect the boiling point
-Smaller alcohols are soluble in water, but solubility is decreasing as the non-polar section is increasing
What are the reactions of alcohols?
Combustion reactions in the air
Define the Carboxylic Acids
-COOH and is attached to the end of an organic compound.
When naming carboxylic acids what is the suffix that is used?
What are the properties of carboxylic acids?
-Same properties as acids, but generally wea acids
- High boiling points
What reactions do carboxylic acids undertake?
What is an esterfication reaction?
When carboxylic acids react with alchols to form "esters"
What are some properties of esters?
-Intermolecular is dipole-dipole
-Low boiling point
Where do hydrocarbons come from?
What is crude oil also known as?
How is crude oil seperated?
In a fractional distillation tower.
Define fractional distilaltion
Seperating one mixture into various via different boiling points
What is the order of the fractional distillation tower?
The lighter fractions are at the top of the tower due to their lower boiling points
- The heaver liquids will sit at the bottom of the tower due to their high boiling points
Large hyrdrocarbons are broken down into smaller ones that are more useful
Define Thermal Cracking
When high temperatures are used to break down the large hydrocarbons
Define Catalytic Cracking
When a catalyst is used to break down the large hydrocarbon.
What is crude oil and where did it come from?
-Dead animals and plants from a long time ago
-Carbon based creatures
-Heated under extreme heat and pressure turns into crude oil
-Crude oil can be seperated into various substances