Flashcards in Chapter 1: Cell Biology. Deck (79):
Increases membrane fluidity
Determinants of cellular charge
Cells are more negative on the inside compared to the outside based on Na/K ATPase (3Na out / 2K in)
Used for co-transport of glucose proteins and other molecules
[Organic anions] ECF
Cations in ECF
Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium
Anions in ECF
Chloride, bicarb, sulfate, phosphate, proteins, organic anions
10 x -7
[Organic anions] ICF
Adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix, respectively), which anchor cells
Desmosomes / hemidesmosomes
Cell-cell occluding junctions; form an impermeable barrier (e.g., epithelium)
Allow communication between cells (connexin subunits)
Intramembrane proteins; transduce signal from receptor to response enzyme
Receptor and response enzyme are a single transmembrane protein
Ligand-triggered protein kinase
Glycolipids on cell membrane
ABO blood-type antigens
Glycoproteins (Gp) on cell membrane
What is the osmotic equilibrium?
Water will move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration and approach osmotic equilibrium.
Cell cycle: protein synthesis, chromosomal duplication
Cell cycle: mitosis, nucleus divides
Most variable portion of cell cycle, determines cell cycle length
Quiescent phase of cell cycle that can follow G1
Phases of mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Mitosis: centromere, attachment, spindle formation, nucleus disappears
Mitosis: chromosome alignment
Mitosis: chromosomes pulled apart
Mitosis: separate nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes
Double membrane, outer membrane continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum
Inside the nucleus, no membrane, ribosomes are made here
DNA strand is used as a template by RNA polymerase for synthesis of an mRNA strand.
Bind DNA and help the transcription of genes.
Binds receptor in cytoplasm, then enters nucleus and acts as a transcription factor.
Binds receptor in nucleus, then acts as a transcription factor.
Examples of transcription factors
Steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, AP-1, NF-kB, STAT, NFAT
Bind RNA polymerase and initiate transcription
Uses oligonucleotides to amplify specific DNA sequences
DNA polymerase chain reaction
Cytosine, thymidine (only in DNA), uracil (only in RNA)
Forms 3 hydrogen bonds with cytosine
Forms 2 hydrogen bonds with either thymidine or uracil
mRNA used as a template by ribosomes for the synthesis of protein
Have small and large subunits that read mRNA, then bind appropriate tRNAs that have amino acids, and eventually make proteins
1 glucose molecule generates 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate molecules
2 membranes, Krebs cycle on inner matrix, NADH/FADH2 created
The 2 pyruvate molecules (from the breakdown of 1 glucose) create NADH and FADH2
Enter the electron transport chain to create ATP
NADH and FADH2
How many ATP does 1 molecule of glucose create?
1 glucose = 36 ATP
Mechanism by which lactic acid (Cori cycle) and amino acids are converted to glucose.
Used in times of starvation or stress (basically the glycolysis pathway in reverse)
Why are fat and lipids not available for gluconeogenesis?
Because acetyl CoA (breakdown product of fat metabolism) cannot be converted back to pyruvate.
Mechanism in which the liver converts muscle lactate into new glucose; pyruvate plays a key role in this process.
Synthesizes proteins that are exported (increased in pancreatic acinar cells)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Lipid / steroid synthesis, detoxifies drugs (increased in liver and adrenal cortex)
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Modifies proteins with carbohydrates; proteins are then transported to the cellular membrane, secreted, or targeted to lysosomes
Have digestive enzymes that degrade engulfed particles and worn-out organelles
Engulf large particles, then fuse with lysosomes
Engulf small particles, then fuse with lysosomes
Activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG). Phosphorylates other enzymes and proteins.
Protein kinase C
Activated by cAMP. Phosphorylates other enzymes and proteins.
Protein Kinase A.
Thick filaments, uses ATP to slide along actin to cause muscle contraction
Thin filaments, interact with myosin above
Keratin (hair/nails), desmin (muscle), vimentin (fibroblasts).
Form specialized cellular structures such as cilia, neuronal axons, and mitotic spindles. Also involved in the transport of organelles in the cell (form a latticework inside the cell).