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1

Increases membrane fluidity

Cholesterol

2

Determinants of cellular charge

Cells are more negative on the inside compared to the outside based on Na/K ATPase (3Na out / 2K in)

3

Used for co-transport of glucose proteins and other molecules

Sodium gradient

4

[Na] ECF

140

5

[K] ECF

4

6

[Ca] ECF

5

7

[Mg] ECF

2

8

[Cl] ECF

103

9

[HCO3] ECF

24

10

[SO4] ECF

1

11

[Protein] ECF

16

12

[PO4] ECF

2

13

[Organic anions] ECF

5

14

Cations in ECF

Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium

15

Anions in ECF

Chloride, bicarb, sulfate, phosphate, proteins, organic anions

16

[Na] ICF

12

17

[K] ICF

150

18

[Ca] ICF

10 x -7

19

[Mg] ICF

7

20

[Cl-] ICF

3

21

[HCO3] ICF

10

22

[SO4] ICF

-

23

[HPO4] ICF

116

24

[Protein] ICF

40

25

[Organic anions] ICF

-

26

Adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix, respectively), which anchor cells

Desmosomes / hemidesmosomes

27

Cell-cell occluding junctions; form an impermeable barrier (e.g., epithelium)

Tight junctions

28

Allow communication between cells (connexin subunits)

Gap junctions

29

Intramembrane proteins; transduce signal from receptor to response enzyme

G proteins

30

Receptor and response enzyme are a single transmembrane protein

Ligand-triggered protein kinase

31

Glycolipids on cell membrane

ABO blood-type antigens

32

Glycoproteins (Gp) on cell membrane

HLA-type antigens

33

What is the osmotic equilibrium?

Water will move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration and approach osmotic equilibrium.

34

Cell cycle: protein synthesis, chromosomal duplication

G1, S

35

Cell cycle: mitosis, nucleus divides

G2, M

36

Most variable portion of cell cycle, determines cell cycle length

G1

37

Quiescent phase of cell cycle that can follow G1

G0.

38

Phases of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

39

Mitosis: centromere, attachment, spindle formation, nucleus disappears

Prophase

40

Mitosis: chromosome alignment

Metaphase

41

Mitosis: chromosomes pulled apart

Anaphase

42

Mitosis: separate nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes

Telophase

43

Double membrane, outer membrane continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum

Nucleus

44

Inside the nucleus, no membrane, ribosomes are made here

Nucleolus

45

DNA strand is used as a template by RNA polymerase for synthesis of an mRNA strand.

Transcription

46

Bind DNA and help the transcription of genes.

Transcription factors.

47

Binds receptor in cytoplasm, then enters nucleus and acts as a transcription factor.

Steroid hormone.

48

Binds receptor in nucleus, then acts as a transcription factor.

Thyroid hormone.

49

Examples of transcription factors

Steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, AP-1, NF-kB, STAT, NFAT

50

Bind RNA polymerase and initiate transcription

Initiation factors.

51

Uses oligonucleotides to amplify specific DNA sequences

DNA polymerase chain reaction

52

Purines

Guanine, adenine

53

Pyrimidines

Cytosine, thymidine (only in DNA), uracil (only in RNA)

54

Forms 3 hydrogen bonds with cytosine

Guanine

55

Forms 2 hydrogen bonds with either thymidine or uracil

Adenine

56

mRNA used as a template by ribosomes for the synthesis of protein

Translation

57

Have small and large subunits that read mRNA, then bind appropriate tRNAs that have amino acids, and eventually make proteins

Ribosomes

58

1 glucose molecule generates 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate molecules

Glycolysis

59

2 membranes, Krebs cycle on inner matrix, NADH/FADH2 created

Mitochondria

60

The 2 pyruvate molecules (from the breakdown of 1 glucose) create NADH and FADH2

Krebs cycle

61

Enter the electron transport chain to create ATP

NADH and FADH2

62

How many ATP does 1 molecule of glucose create?

1 glucose = 36 ATP

63

Mechanism by which lactic acid (Cori cycle) and amino acids are converted to glucose.

Gluconeogenesis.

64

Used in times of starvation or stress (basically the glycolysis pathway in reverse)

Gluconeogenesis

65

Why are fat and lipids not available for gluconeogenesis?

Because acetyl CoA (breakdown product of fat metabolism) cannot be converted back to pyruvate.

66

Mechanism in which the liver converts muscle lactate into new glucose; pyruvate plays a key role in this process.

Cori cycle

67

Synthesizes proteins that are exported (increased in pancreatic acinar cells)

Rough endoplasmic reticulum.

68

Lipid / steroid synthesis, detoxifies drugs (increased in liver and adrenal cortex)

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

69

Modifies proteins with carbohydrates; proteins are then transported to the cellular membrane, secreted, or targeted to lysosomes

Golgi apparatus

70

Have digestive enzymes that degrade engulfed particles and worn-out organelles

Lysosomes

71

Engulf large particles, then fuse with lysosomes

Phagosomes

72

Engulf small particles, then fuse with lysosomes

Endosomes

73

Activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG). Phosphorylates other enzymes and proteins.

Protein kinase C

74

Activated by cAMP. Phosphorylates other enzymes and proteins.

Protein Kinase A.

75

Thick filaments, uses ATP to slide along actin to cause muscle contraction

Myosin

76

Thin filaments, interact with myosin above

Actin

77

Keratin (hair/nails), desmin (muscle), vimentin (fibroblasts).

Intermediate filaments.

78

Form specialized cellular structures such as cilia, neuronal axons, and mitotic spindles. Also involved in the transport of organelles in the cell (form a latticework inside the cell).

Microtubules.

79

Specialized microtubule involved in cell division (forms spindle fibers, which pull the chromosome apart)

Centriole.