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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Blood Products Deck (24):
1

All blood products carry the risk of HIV and hepatitis except..

Albumin and serum globulins (theses are heat treated)

2

What is donated blood screened for?

HIV. HepB. HepC. HTLV. Syphillis. West Nile virus.

3

When would you use CMV-negative blood?

Low birth-weight infants. Bone marrow transplant patients. Other transplant patients.

4

#1 cause of death from transfusion reaction

Clerical error leading to ABO incompatibility

5

- Universal donor.
- Contains no antigents

Type O blood

6

Is stored blood right or left shift of oxygen?

Left shift: stored blood is low in 2,3-DPG. (has increased affinity for oxygen).

7

Three types of hemolytic reactions from blood transfusion

- Acute hemolysis
- Delayed hemolysis
- Nonimmune hemolysis

8

- From ABO incompatibility; antibody mediated.
- S/S: back pain, chills, tachycardia, fever, hemoglobinuria.
- Can lead to ATN, DIC, shock.

Acute hemolysis

9

Diagnosis of acute hemolysis from transfusion reaction

Haptoglobin 5g/dL, increase in unconjugated bilirubin

10

Treatment for acute hemolysis from transfusion reaction

Fluids, diuretics, HCO3-, pressors, histamine blockers (Benadryl)

11

How does acute hemolysis from blood transfusion present in anesthetized patients?

Diffuse bleeding

12

Transfusion reaction:
- Antibody-mediated against minor antigens.
- Tx: observe if stable.

Delayed hemolysis

13

Transfusion reaction:
- From squeezed blood.
Tx: fluids and diuretics

Nonimmune hemolysis

14

Most common transfusion reaction

Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction

15

Transfusion reaction:
- Usually recipient antibody reaction against donor WBCs
Tx: discontinue transfusion
- Use WBC filters for subsequent transfusions

Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction

16

Transfusion reaction:
- Bronchospasm, hypotension, urticaria.
- Usually recipient antibodies against donor IgA in an IgA-deficient patient.
Tx: fluids, Lasix, pressors, steroids, epinephrine, histamine blockers (Benadryl)

Anaphylaxis

17

Transfusion reaction:
- Usually non hemolytic
- Usually recipient antibodies against donor plasma proteins or IgA in an IgA-deficient patient
Tx: histamine blockers (Benadryl), supportive

Urticaria

18

Transfusion reaction:
- Rare
- Caused by donor antibodies to recipient's WBCs, clot in pulmonary capillaries

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)

19

What is the problem with hypothermia in transfusion?

Cold: poor clotting can be caused by cold products or cold body temperature; patient needs to be warm to clot correctly.

20

When does dilution thrombocytopenia occur with blood transfusion?

Occurs after 10 units of PRBCs

21

What is the problem with hypocalemia with clotting?

Can cause poor clotting.
- Occurs with massive transfusion, Ca is required fro the clotting cascade

22

MC bacterial contaminate

GNRs (usually E. coli)

23

MC blood product source of contamination

Platelets (not refrigerated)

24

Can be transmitted with blood transfusion (sleeping sickness)

Chaga's disease