Chapter 1 Evolution, The Themes Of Bilogy, And Scientific Inquiry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Evolution, The Themes Of Bilogy, And Scientific Inquiry Deck (46):
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What is Evolution

 is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection.

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What is biology

The scientific study of life.

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What Is a Community in biological organization?

The array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem.

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What is a population?

A population consist of all the individuals of a species living within bounds of a specific area

 

A population is a group of one species.

 

Example, the human population, Plant population, dog population, is just one species.

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What are organisms?

A living thing.

 

Example tree, plant, a deer, a human, a bug, a bacteria.

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What is a microorganism?

give an example

an incredibly small organisim, that you need a microscope to see.

Examples, bacteria, protist.

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What is an organ ?

An organ is a body part that Carries out a particular function in the body.

organs are made up of tissues

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What is an organ system?

Is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Each does a particular job in the body, and is made up of certain tissues.

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Tissues

Are a group of cells that work together, performing a specialized function.

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10

What is photosynthesis

 

what is the reaction?

The process that Green plants convert light energy to the chemical energy of sugar.

 

sunlight + carbon dioxide+ water ⇒ sugar + oxygen

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What is a cell

A structure that makes up life.

 

It has functons 

Inside there are compenets that work together to make the cell function (live).  

It is the smallest unit of life.

Examples,  Bacteria, muscle cell, Brain cell (neuron), white blood cells

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What is the difference between a single cell organism and a multicellular organism?

A single cell performs all the functions of life, and a multicellular organism has a division of labor among specialized cells.

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What is an organelle

The various functional components inside a cell. Example chloroplast exist in plant cells which are responsible for photosynthesis.

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What is a Molecule

A molecule consists of various kinds of atoms bonded to one another.

Example, within each chloroplast, millions of chlorophyll molecules are organized into systems that convert light energy to the chemical energy of food.

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Emergent property

The arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.   

A new function that is created when multiple things work together.

When things combine to make a new function, because they can not perform this function solo.

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Systems biology

The study of the systems in living things.

 

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Prokayotic cells vs Eukaryotic cells

What are the two major differences?

Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than Eukaryotic cells,

Eukaryotic cells contain membrane enclosed organelles but prokayotic do not. 

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Genes

genes are tranmitted from parent to offspring, they have the information that gives each organism (individual) its traits. not only visble but internal traits.

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describe the structure of DNA 

tell the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA

  • Eukaryotic DNA contains two long chains, called strands, arranged in a double helix. each strand is made up of four chemical building blocks called nucleotides.
    • DNA is wrapped around histone proteins which make a chromosome and are kept in the nucleus.

 

  • Prokaryotic DNA still has the two long strands and same four nucleotides but it is in a circluar shape.

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What is gene expression?

Gene expression is the process by which the instructions in our DNA are converted into a functional product, such as a protein.

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What is a nucleotide?

Name them and how many?

how are they paired?

 

the building blocks of the genetic code, there are four of them

  • Adenine (A)
  • Thymine (T)
  • Cytosine (C)
  • Guanine (G)

A to T

And

C to G

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What is a genome?

Is all the genetic material in an organism. its all of  the organisms DNA.

 

 

The picture shows a eukaryote's genome, because it shows chromosomes in a nucleus

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23

How do lens (eyes) cells make crystallin proteins? 

making organisms able to see

  • The crystallin gene is a secetion of DNA in the chromosome
  • using the information in the DNA necleotides, the cell makes (transcribes)a specific RNA molecule called mRNA (messanger RNA)
  • the cell then tanslates the information in the sequence of mRNA  nucleotides to make protein, a series of linked amino acids.
  • the chain of amino acids folds into the shape of crystallin protein. crystallin proteins can then pack together and focus light, allowing the eye to see.

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 what is genomics 

Study of a all the DNA in an organism.

 

the branch of molecular biology dealing with the structure function and evolution and maping of genomes.

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what is proteomics?

the study of sets of proteins and their properties.

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what is a proteome?

the entire set of proteins expressed by a given cell or group of cells 

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What is Bioinformatics?

the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that results from high-throughput methods.

 

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what is feedback regulation? 

name the two types of feedbacks and explain them

the output or product , of a process regulates that very process. 

a control mechanism that uses the consequences of a process to regulate the rate at which the process occurs. 

 

Example of negative feedback, the control of blood sugar (glucose) by insulin  is a good eample of negative feedback because, when blood sugar rises, receptors in the body sense a change. in turn, the control center (pancreas) secretes insulin into the blood effectively lowing blood sugar levels.

Example of positive feedback, is a cyclic process that can continue to amplify your bodys response to a stimulus until a negative feedback takes over.

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29

What is taxanomy?

The branch of biology that names and classifies species, formalizng this ording into groups increasing breadth, based on the degree to which they share characteristics.

 

the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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30

what are the three domains of life? 

what are the two and four kingdoms they fall into? Name all six

Also what cells are they made up of?

Bacteria and Archaea are two of the domains and they are made up of prokaryotic cells.

and then all the eukaryotes (organisms with eukaryotic cells) are grouped in the domain Eukarya. 

This domain includes three kingdoms of multicellular eukaryotes: kingdoms Plantae(which produce their own sugars and other food molecules through photosynthesis) , Fungi (absorb dissolved nutrients from their surroundings), and Animalia (obtain food by eating and digesting other organisms). they are distinguished through their modes of nutrition. 

There is also the Protist which is in the eukarya domain but they are in their own kingdom due to the fact that they are a single celled eukaryote, instead of the multicellular like fungi plantae and animilia.

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What is unity underlying the diversity of life? Give an Example.

 

 

When two organisms so different share a common architecture. example a common genetic code.

example, cilia are extensions of cells that function in locomotion. They occur in eukaryotes as diverse as paramecium (found in pond water) and humans. 

The cilia of the single-celled paramecium propel the organism through pond water.

The cells that line the human  windpipe  are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by sweeping a film of debris-trapping mucus upward.

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What is natural selection and who discovered it?

Natural selection is the process in which the organisms that better adapt to their enviroment tend to survive and produce more offspring. 

This theory was found by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.

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What is science?

a way of knowing an approach to understanding the natural world.

science is derrived from a latin verb meaning "to know"

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What is an inquiry?

A search for information and explanations of natural phenomena.

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What is Data

Recorded observations

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What is inductive reasoning? give examples

Using specific information to get an overall generalization of something. 

first from specific information/observations to the overall big picture/generalization.

we see the sun rise in the east 25 times consecutively, so it must happen everytime.

"the sun always rises in the east" (big picture)

 

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What is deductive reasoning?

give an example

involves logic that flows in the opposite direction, from the general to the specific.

Big picture to specifics

 

big piture is All african americans arent intelligent.

specific is tyron is a dumbass

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What is an experiement?

involves manipulation of one factor in a system in order to see the effects changing it.

Manipulate that indipendent variable to see what happens to the dependent variable.

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what are variables?

Name and define the two types of variables

factors that vary in an experiment.

one variable is the independent variable is the one that you change 

and the dependent variable changes depending on the independent variable.

 

 

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what is a Controlled experiement? give an example

Define the two types of groups involved

Is an experiment that contains experimental groups and a control group.

an experimental group is the group that has been changed/ gets the indpendent variable.

a control group is a group that does not change/ it is the orginal. does not get the independent variable.

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What is the difference between independent variable and dependent variable?

independent variable is a variable whose variation does not depend on that of another. 

dependent variable is a variable whose value dependent on that of another.

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What is Scientific theory?

an explanation of some observation of the natural world that can, in accordance with scientific method, be repdatedly tested, usin a predefined protocol of observations and experiements.

 

something that has an abundance of evidence that supports it but could be disproven if evidence proves so. (havent found evidence to disprove it.)

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model organism

a species that is easy to grow in a lab and lends itself particularly well to the questions being investigated.

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Describe the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative data? give examples

Quantitative data is numbers. 

example height: 6'1, 5'1, 4'2

 

Qualitative Data: Data in words

example height: Tall, Medium, Short

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What is an ecosystem 

living and non-living things in the same area 

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