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Plans by governments to decrease the use of psychiatric hospitals and replace them with community-based treatment.


Disability Adjusted Life Years

A combined measure of disability and premature mortality. Calculated by adding years lived with disability and years of life lost.



The study of the distribution of health and illness of populations.



The proportion of people who have a new case of the condition being studied.


Mental health
(WHO definition)

A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of every day life.


Mental status examination

A series of observations, structured questions, and tests undertaken by health professional to evaluate a person's mental health.


Years of Lost Life

A measure of the number of years of life lost due to premature mortality (death) in the population.


Years Lived with Disability

The number of years of life accompanied by disability due to a disease or injury.


Ratings of mental health must rely on:

Observations, historical information, and inference.


Mental Health infers various capacities including the ability to:
(Canadian Senate's standing committee report on mental health)

- Understand oneself and one's life;
- Relate to other people and respond to one's environment;
- Experience pleasure and enjoyment;
- Handle stress in withstand discomfort;
- Evaluate challenges and problems;
- Pursue goals and interests;
- Explore choices and make decisions.


Mental health is associated with:
(Canadian Senate's standing committee report on mental health)

- Positive self-esteem,
- Happiness,
- Interest in life,
- Work satisfaction,
- Mastery and a sense of coherence.


Good mental health enables individuals to:
(Canadian Senate's standing committee report on mental health)

Realize their potential and contribute to society.


An examination of an individual's mental health begins by observing:

- Behaviour,
- Psychomotor activity,
- Speech,
- General demeanour.


Transient states of mind across the lifespan maybe influenced by various factors including:

- Environment
- Stressors
- Significant life events
- Substance use


Burden of disease

The impact of a health problem in an area measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.


"Mental health" literally means:

Health of the mind.



A concept for which there is not a single observable referent and cannot be directly observed.


Examples of constructs:

The mind, intelligence, love, fear.


Factors that influence mental health and mental illness:

Biology, psychology, environment, family and childhood, culture, politics and economy.


From the perspective of the physical sciences, emphasis is on:

Functions of the brain, neurotransmitters, endocrine system (adrenaline, estrogen, testosterone), genetic influences, pharmaceutical agents.


From the social sciences perspectives focus on:

Family life, culture, society, and political and economic environments.


Relying on one perspective of mental health leads to:

Reductionist thinking.


Types of mental health services and support systems:

Counseling, psychotherapy, emergency and hospital-based psychiatric treatment services, social services, public health indicatives promoting good mental health.


Traditional practices that are relevant to mental health and spirituality among Canadians aboriginal peoples include:

Ritual chants, ceremonial dances, drumming, ritual journeys, communal sweats, and other spiritual rites.


Residential asylums

Large hospital like facilities in which the mentally ill were treated. Purpose was to provide safe settings for physical and spiritual care to shield individuals from the harm and peril that commonly befell people with mental illnesses. Segregated the mentally ill from the general public.


Policy of institutionalization led to large asylums across Canada during what time period?

Mid to late 1800s and continuing until the 1960s.