Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Intro Deck (16):
Where did the soul reside in ancient Egypt?
Who thought the brain was the seat of intelligence?
Who thought heart was centre of intellect in Greece? What was the brain?
Air conditioner for blood
How did Galen contribute?
First drew cerebrum and cerebellum in sheep brains
Brain centre of intellect
Noted cerebellum hard - for muscles
Noted cerebrum soft - for sensations and memory
Ventricle fluid contained humors, flowing through nerves
What did Decartes contribute?
Humans possess animal soul
Brain mechanisms control behaviour like that of animals. Uniquely human abilities exist in mind via messages received via pineal gland
What happened end 18th century?
Scientists saw sulci (bumps) and gyri (grooves)
Cerebrum divided into lobes
How was brain viewed in late 18th century?
1. Injury causes disruption in sensations, movement, thought
2. Brain communicates via nerves
3. Brain has identifiable parts performing different functions
4. Operates like machine and follows laws of nature
Galvani and du Bois-Reymond
Muscles twitch when electricity stimulates nerves
Brain generates electricity
Nerves are wires
Bell and Magendie discovered nerves branch before spinal cord attachment. Dorsal carries sensation to spinal cord, ventral carries muscle signal. Each nerve has both types
What did Experimental ablation method enable discovery of?
Parts of brain destroyed to determine function
Cerebellum controls movement
Bell and Galen suggested
What was phrenology?
Flourens fought - shape of skull doesn’t match brain
But he also said erroneously that whole cerebrum participates in all brain functions equally
Whst did Broca discover?
Fritsch und Hitzig?
1. Speech production in left frontal lobe
2. Shock on brain produces movement, removal paralysis
3. Occipital for vision
What did Darwin add?
Because behaviour reflects activity of the nervous system, we can infer that the brain mechanisms that underlie this fear reaction may be similar across species.
Why we can experiment on animals.
What is Schwann’s cell theory?
How did this work for the brain?
All tissues are composed of cells
Couldn’t tell if brain cells were fused together
Discovery of neurons
Four insights from 19th century?
1. Nerves as wires
2. Localization of specific functions to different parts of the brain
3. Evolution of nervous systems
4. Neuron as basic unit
In ascending order, what are levels of analysis of brain?