Chapter 1 - Intro Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Intro Deck (16):
1

Where did the soul reside in ancient Egypt?

The heart

2

Who thought the brain was the seat of intelligence?

Hippocrates

3

Who thought heart was centre of intellect in Greece? What was the brain?

Aristotle
Air conditioner for blood

4

How did Galen contribute?

First drew cerebrum and cerebellum in sheep brains
Brain centre of intellect
Noted cerebellum hard - for muscles
Noted cerebrum soft - for sensations and memory
Ventricle fluid contained humors, flowing through nerves

5

What did Decartes contribute?

Humans possess animal soul
Brain mechanisms control behaviour like that of animals. Uniquely human abilities exist in mind via messages received via pineal gland

6

What happened end 18th century?

Scientists saw sulci (bumps) and gyri (grooves)
Cerebrum divided into lobes
Functions localized

7

How was brain viewed in late 18th century?

1. Injury causes disruption in sensations, movement, thought
2. Brain communicates via nerves
3. Brain has identifiable parts performing different functions
4. Operates like machine and follows laws of nature

8

Galvani and du Bois-Reymond

Muscles twitch when electricity stimulates nerves
Brain generates electricity
Nerves are wires
Bell and Magendie discovered nerves branch before spinal cord attachment. Dorsal carries sensation to spinal cord, ventral carries muscle signal. Each nerve has both types

9

What did Experimental ablation method enable discovery of?

Parts of brain destroyed to determine function
Flourens discovered
Cerebellum controls movement
Cerebrum sensation
Bell and Galen suggested

10

What was phrenology?

Skull measurement
Gall
Flourens fought - shape of skull doesn’t match brain
But he also said erroneously that whole cerebrum participates in all brain functions equally

11

Whst did Broca discover?
Fritsch und Hitzig?
Munk?

1. Speech production in left frontal lobe
2. Shock on brain produces movement, removal paralysis
3. Occipital for vision

12

What did Darwin add?

Because behaviour reflects activity of the nervous system, we can infer that the brain mechanisms that underlie this fear reaction may be similar across species.
Why we can experiment on animals.

13

What is Schwann’s cell theory?
How did this work for the brain?

All tissues are composed of cells
Couldn’t tell if brain cells were fused together
Discovery of neurons

14

Four insights from 19th century?

1. Nerves as wires
2. Localization of specific functions to different parts of the brain
3. Evolution of nervous systems
4. Neuron as basic unit

15

In ascending order, what are levels of analysis of brain?

Molecular neuroscience
Cellular neuroscience
Systems neuroscience
Behavioral neuroscience
Cognitive neuroscience

16

What are ethical steps taken for animal subjects?

1. Only worthwhile experiments
2. Pain minimized
3. Alternatives considered