Chapter 1: Orientation to the Human Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Orientation to the Human Body Deck (29):
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Anatomy is

The study of the structures (morphology, form) of body parts

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Physiology is

The study of the functions of body parts

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Inferior

(Directional)

Directional: below

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Anterior

(Directional)

Directional: front

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Posterior

Directional: behind

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Medial

Directional: close to middle

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Lateral

Directional: away from middle

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Proximal

Directional: closer

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Distal

Directional: further away

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Superficial

Directional: close to surface

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Deep

Directional: close to bones

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Superior

Directional: above

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Atom
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Human organism

List from least to most complex levels of structural organization

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Sagittal

Plane

Plane: divides the body lengthwise into right and left sides

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Transverse

Plane

Plane: divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior portions

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Frontal
(Coronal)

Plane

Plane: divides the body lengthwise into anterior and posterior portions

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Ventral

Cavity

Located in the front of the body contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities which are separated by the diaphragm

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Dorsal

Cavity

Located at the back of the body contains the cranial and spinal cavities

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Thoracic

Cavity

Surrounded by the ribs and chest muscles, contains the lungs and heart

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Abdominal

Cavity

Contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs

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Pelvic

Cavity

Contains the bladder and some reproductive organs and the rectum

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Receptor

Receives information about a change in the environment

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Control center

Receives and processes the information

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Effector

Response to signals from the control center by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus

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Negative feedback

Reverses or shuts off the change

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Positive feedback

Reinforces or increases the change

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Homeostasis

Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment despite changes in external conditions

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Pathophysiology

Study of disorders of functioning of the human body

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Setpoints

Range of normal