Chapter 6: Bones And Bone Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Bones And Bone Tissue Deck (26):
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Number of bones in adult body

206

1

Long bones

Bones: greater in length than width

2

Physiology of bones

Shape: give body it's structure

Support: bones of the legs, pelvis and vertebral column supports the body and hold upright

Protection: protect delicate internal organs

Movement: movement of arms legs and ability to breathe a result from interaction between bones and muscles

Electrolyte balance: stores and releases minerals

Blood cell production: bone marrow produces RBC, WBC and platelets

Acid-base balance: absorbs and releases alkaline salts to help maintain a stable pH

3

Short bones

Bones: cube shaped

4

Flat bones

Bones: thin, but protective

5

Irregular bones

Bones: complex shapes

6

Four major microscopic bone cell types

Osteogenic cells

Osteoblasts

Osteocytes

Osteoclast

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Diaphysis

Long main portion of the bone

8

Epiphysis

The distal and proximal ends of the bone

9

Metaphysis

Region where the diaphysis joins epiphysis

10

Articular cartilage

Thin Hyaline cartilage that covers the Epiphysis, reduces friction and absorbs shock

11

Periosteum

Dense irregular connective tissue covering the bone except where articular cartilage is present. It provides a point of attachment for ligaments and tendons

12

Medullary cavity

Hollow cylindrical space in the diaphysis. Contains yellow bone marrow

13

Endosteum

Thin membrane that lines medullary cavity, contains bone-forming cells

14

Osteogenic cells

Unspecialized stem cells, they undergo cell division and resulting cells develop into osteoblasts

15

Osteoblast

Bone-building cells, they synthesize and secrete collagen fibers

Deposition

16

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells, maintain daily metabolism

17

Osteoclasts

Release enzymes and acids which breakdown bone

Resorption

18

Compact bone tissue

Contains osteons (Havershan systems) with a little space between

Makes up most of bone tissue and the diaphysis

Functionally compact bone, protects supports and resists stress

19

Spongy bone tissue

Consists of trabeculae surrounding red bone marrow

Located in short, flat, irregular bones and the epiphysis of long bones

Functionally stores red bone marrow and provide some support

20

Two hormones involved in maintaining blood calcium levels

Parathyroid hormone

Calcitonin

21

Parathyroid hormone

Secreted from parathyroid glands

Released when blood calcium levels are low

Increases the number and activity of osteoclasts

Thereby releasing calcium from bone into blood

22

Calcitonin

Secreted from thyroid, decreases osteoclast activity, released when blood calcium is elevated

23

Yellow bone marrow

Saturated with fat giving it a yellowish color

24

Red bone marrow

Red blood cell production takes place

Located in the adult ribs, sternum, vertebrae, skull, pelvis and upper parts of humerus and femur

25

Increases bone strength

Mechanical stress on bones increases their strength

Weight-bearing exercise helps to build and retain bone mass