Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Overview Deck (11):

1

## Statistics

### a science whereby inferences are made about specific random phenomena on the basis of relatively limited sample material

2

## Mathematical statistics

### concerns the development of new methods of statistical inference and requires detailed knowledge of abstract mathematics for its implementation

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## Applied statistics

### involves application of mathematical statistical methods to specific subject areas such as economics, psychology, and public health

4

## Biostatistics

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- a branch of applied statistics that applies statistical methods to medical and biological problems

- standard statistical methods may not necessarily be applicable for all studies

5

## Steps in data analysis

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- data collection

- data entry

- data editing

- data analysis

- publication of manuscript

6

## Descriptive statistics

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- descriptive material can be numeric or graphic

- if numeric, data can be tabulated or presented as a frequency distribution

- if graphic, data can be summarized pictorially

- choice of numeric or graphic descriptive statistics is dependent on data type

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## Continuous data

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- where there are infinite number of possible values (eg. blood pressure measurements)

- means and standard deviations may be used

8

## Discrete data

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- where there are only a few possible values (eg. sex)

- percentages of people for each value may be considered

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## Inferential statistics

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- inferring the characteristics of a population from a sample is the central concern of statistical inference

- probability model = tells us how likely it is to obtain a difference between the two methods if there were no real difference between the methods

- a small enough probability would indicate that the difference between the two methods is real

10

## Statistical package

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- a statistical package is a collection of statistical programs that describe data and perform various statistical tests on the data

- a few statistical packages include R, SAS, SPSS, Stata, MINITAB, and Excel

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