Chapter 1 - Overview Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Overview Deck (11):
1

Statistics

a science whereby inferences are made about specific random phenomena on the basis of relatively limited sample material

2

Mathematical statistics

concerns the development of new methods of statistical inference and requires detailed knowledge of abstract mathematics for its implementation

3

Applied statistics

involves application of mathematical statistical methods to specific subject areas such as economics, psychology, and public health

4

Biostatistics

- a branch of applied statistics that applies statistical methods to medical and biological problems
- standard statistical methods may not necessarily be applicable for all studies

5

Steps in data analysis

- data collection
- data entry
- data editing
- data analysis
- publication of manuscript

6

Descriptive statistics

- descriptive material can be numeric or graphic
- if numeric, data can be tabulated or presented as a frequency distribution
- if graphic, data can be summarized pictorially
- choice of numeric or graphic descriptive statistics is dependent on data type

7

Continuous data

- where there are infinite number of possible values (eg. blood pressure measurements)
- means and standard deviations may be used

8

Discrete data

- where there are only a few possible values (eg. sex)
- percentages of people for each value may be considered

9

Inferential statistics

- inferring the characteristics of a population from a sample is the central concern of statistical inference
- probability model = tells us how likely it is to obtain a difference between the two methods if there were no real difference between the methods
- a small enough probability would indicate that the difference between the two methods is real

10

Statistical package

- a statistical package is a collection of statistical programs that describe data and perform various statistical tests on the data
- a few statistical packages include R, SAS, SPSS, Stata, MINITAB, and Excel

11

R

- R is a very powerful, advanced, modern, and free open-source statistical and computational and graphical environment