Chapter 1 - Overview Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Overview Deck (11):


a science whereby inferences are made about specific random phenomena on the basis of relatively limited sample material


Mathematical statistics

concerns the development of new methods of statistical inference and requires detailed knowledge of abstract mathematics for its implementation


Applied statistics

involves application of mathematical statistical methods to specific subject areas such as economics, psychology, and public health



- a branch of applied statistics that applies statistical methods to medical and biological problems
- standard statistical methods may not necessarily be applicable for all studies


Steps in data analysis

- data collection
- data entry
- data editing
- data analysis
- publication of manuscript


Descriptive statistics

- descriptive material can be numeric or graphic
- if numeric, data can be tabulated or presented as a frequency distribution
- if graphic, data can be summarized pictorially
- choice of numeric or graphic descriptive statistics is dependent on data type


Continuous data

- where there are infinite number of possible values (eg. blood pressure measurements)
- means and standard deviations may be used


Discrete data

- where there are only a few possible values (eg. sex)
- percentages of people for each value may be considered


Inferential statistics

- inferring the characteristics of a population from a sample is the central concern of statistical inference
- probability model = tells us how likely it is to obtain a difference between the two methods if there were no real difference between the methods
- a small enough probability would indicate that the difference between the two methods is real


Statistical package

- a statistical package is a collection of statistical programs that describe data and perform various statistical tests on the data
- a few statistical packages include R, SAS, SPSS, Stata, MINITAB, and Excel



- R is a very powerful, advanced, modern, and free open-source statistical and computational and graphical environment