Chapter 1 quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 quiz Deck (20):
1

The first line of defense against microorganisms that infect the body is referred to as _____.

a. opportunistic immunity
b. innate immunity
c. adaptive immunity
d. primary immunity
e. central immunity

b. innate immunity

2

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

a. innate immunity: highly specialized defenses
b. secondary immune response: immunological memory
c. hematopoiesis: bone marrow
d. phagocytosis: uptake and killing of microbes
e. lymphocyte recirculation: continuous transport between blood and lymph

a. innate immunity: highly specialized defenses

3

When effector lymphocytes secrete _____, an inflammatory response ensues.

a. lysozyme
b. defensins
c. lymph
d. sebum
e. cytokines

e. cytokines

4

The thin layer of cells that makes up the interior lining of the blood vessels is called the _____.

a. mucosa
b. epithelium
c. endothelium
d. connective tissue
e. lymphoid tissue

c. endothelium

5

Identify the incorrect statement regarding hematopoiesis.
a. Hematopoiesis is a continuous process that occurs throughout one’s lifetime.
b. The location for hematopoiesis differs with age.
c. Self renewal is necessary to replenish the supply of hematopoietic stem cells.
d. Most hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow after birth.
e. Leukocytes, but not erythrocytes, must go through hematopoiesis in order to develop.

e. Leukocytes, but not erythrocytes, must go through hematopoiesis in order to develop.

6

Effector cells that secrete antibodies are known as _____.

a. natural killer cells
b. cytotoxic T cells
c. helper T cells
d. M cells
e. plasma cells
f. regulatory T cells

e. plasma cells

7

The _____ is (are) the lymphoid organ(s) that filter(s) the blood.

a. spleen
b. tonsils
c. Peyer’s patches
d. appendix
e. adenoids.

a. spleen

8

_____ cells persist long after an individual has been vaccinated.

a. Neutrophil
b. Plasma
c. Memory
d. M
e. Mast

c. Memory

9

In most cases, adaptive immune responses rely on the initial activation of _____ in secondary lymphoid tissue:

a. macrophages
b. T cells
c. B cells
d. dendritic cells
e. epithelium

c. B cells

10

All of the following statements are characteristic of secondary immune responses except _____.

a. Secondary immune responses are activated when primary immune responses fail to completely eradicate an infection.
b. Secondary immune responses are restricted to adaptive immune responses.
c. Memory cells are activated rapidly during secondary immune responses.
d. Secondary immune responses are orders of magnitude greater than primary immune responses.
e. During a secondary immune response to a booster vaccine, it is possible to experience a primary
immune response to an unrelated vaccine component encountered for the first time.

a. Secondary immune responses are activated when primary immune responses fail to completely eradicate an infection.

11

An example of an antimicrobial peptide that protects epithelial surfaces from pathogens is _____.

a. glycoprotein
b. defensin
c. proteoglycan
d. lysozyme
e. sebum

b. defensin

12

Which of the following statements regarding neutrophils is false?

a. Neutrophils are mobilized from the bone marrow to sites of infection when needed.
b. Neutrophils are active only in aerobic conditions.
c. Neutrophils are phagocytic.
d. Neutrophils form pus, which comprises dead neutrophils.
e. Dead neutrophils are cleared from sites of infection by macrophages.

b. Neutrophils are active only in aerobic conditions.

13

Primary lymphoid tissues are the sites where lymphocytes _______, whereas secondary lymphoid tissues are the sites where lymphocytes _______.

a. are stimulated; develop and mature
b. encounter pathogens; undergo apoptosis
c. develop and mature; become stimulated
d. undergo clonal selection; differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells
e. die; are phagocytosed after death

c. develop and mature; become stimulated

14

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

a. lymphocytes: innate immune response
b. natural killer cell: kills virus-infected cells
c. macrophage: phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms
d. erythrocyte: oxygen transport
e. eosinophil: defense against parasites.

a. lymphocytes: innate immune response

15

A term generally used to describe all white blood cells is _____.

a. hematopoietic cells
b. myeloid progenitor
c. dendritic cells
d. monocytes
e. leukocytes

e. leukocytes

16

Examples of granulocytes include all of the following except:

a. neutrophil
b. monocyte
c. basophil
d. eosinophil
e. All of the above are examples of granulocytes.

b. monocyte

17

The most abundant type of leukocyte in human peripheral blood is the _____.

a. eosinophil
b. basophil
c. neutrophil
d. monocyte
e. lymphocyte

c. neutrophil

18

Which of the following statements is false?

a. During human development, hematopoiesis takes place at different anatomical locations.
b. The hematopoietic stem cell gives rise to white blood cells, but a different stem cell is the progenitor
of red blood cells.
c. Hematopoietic stem cells are self-renewing.
d. Platelets participate in clotting reactions to prevent blood loss.
e. Megakaryocytes do not circulate and reside only in the bone marrow.

b. The hematopoietic stem cell gives rise to white blood cells, but a different stem cell is the progenitor
of red blood cells.

19

Vaccination is best described as prevention of severe disease by _______.

a. the deliberate introduction of a virulent strain of an infectious agent
b. prior exposure to an infectious agent in an attenuated or weakened form
c. prophylactic treatment with antibiotics
d. stimulating effective innate immune responses
e. using effective public-health isolation regimens such as quarantine

b. prior exposure to an infectious agent in an attenuated or weakened form

20

Which of the following explains why immunity to influenza may appear to be relatively short-lived?

a. Effective immunological memory fails to develop.
b. Immune responses to influenza involve innate immune mechanisms only.
3
c. The primary and secondary immune responses are equivalent.
d. Influenza virus targets memory cells.
e. New influenza variants able to escape previous immunity appear regularly.

e. New influenza variants able to escape previous immunity appear regularly.