Chapter 3 quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 quiz Deck (25):
1

Lectins recognize microbial _____.

a. phosphate-containing lipoteichoic acids
b. nucleic acids
c. carbohydrates
d. flagellin
e. peptides

c. carbohydrates

2

Macrophages bear on their surface receptors for all of the following except _____.

a. mannose and glucans
b. C3b
c. muramyl dipeptide and CpG-rich bacterial DNA
d. lipopolysaccharide
e. lipoteichoic acid

c. muramyl dipeptide and CpG-rich bacterial DNA

3

_____ are structurally similar membrane-bound proteins that aid in the adhesion between various types of human cell.

a. Interferons
b. Integrins
c. GTP-binding proteins
d. Pyrogens
e. Pentraxins

b. Integrins

4

All of the following cytokines induce fever except _____.

a. IL-12
b. IL-6
c. IL-1
d. TNF-alpha
e. None of the above

a. IL-12

5

Which of the following is not associated with mobilization of neutrophils to infected tissue?

a. TNF-alpha production by macrophages
b. upregulation of selectins on blood vessel endothelium
c. interferon response
d. generation of a CXCL8 gradient
e. extravasation across endothelium
f. proteolysis of basement membrane of blood vessels.

c. interferon response

6

The pH of the phagosome increases following phagocytosis because _____.

a. the microbe delivers a significant number of hydroxyl ions in its cytosol that are released upon
membrane disruption
b. hydrogen ions are eliminated by the activity of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase
c. azurophilic granules deliver alkaline substances
d. catalase consumes hydrogen ions once activated

b. hydrogen ions are eliminated by the activity of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase

7

The name given to cytokines that recruit cells to move towards areas of inflammation is _____.

a. Chemokines
b. caspase-recruitment domains (CARDs)
c. inflammakines
d. adhesion molecules
e. pyrogens

a. Chemokines

8

In common with Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors also contain _____ that is/are used for pathogen-recognition of microbial ligands.

a. caspase-recruitment domains (CARD)
b. Toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain
c. variable extracellular domain
d. leucine-rich repeat regions (LRRs)
e. C-type lectin domain (CTLD)

d. leucine-rich repeat regions (LRRs)

9

Identify which of the following receptors does not lead to nuclear translocation of NFkB through an activated IKK intermediate.

a. TLR4
b. IL-1 receptor
c. NOD1
d. NOD2
e. All of the above receptors culminate in nuclear translocation of NFkB through an activated IKK
intermediate.

e. All of the above receptors culminate in nuclear translocation of NFkB through an activated IKK
intermediate.

10

_____ help to prevent systemic bacterial dissemination by producing chromatin structures loaded with antimicrobial substances.

a. Inflammasomes
b. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
c. RIG-1-like helicases
d. Granulomas
e. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells

b. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)

11

_____ is/are needed to minimize the damaging effects to neighboring host cells during a respiratory burst.

a. Catalase activity
b. Complement control proteins
c. NADPH oxidase activity
d. Neutrophil mobilization
e. Superoxide dismutase activity

a. Catalase activity

12

Toll-like receptors differ from scavenger receptors in that they _____.

a. bind to common repetitive arrays on microbial surfaces
b. stimulate a pathway that causes enzymatic degradation of the microbe to which they bind
c. are soluble receptors that bind to microbes in extracellular spaces
d. mediate signal transduction pathways, causing cytokine production

d. mediate signal transduction pathways, causing cytokine production

13

All of the following statements regarding Toll-like receptors are true except _____.

a. They exist as either transmembrane homodimers or heterodimers
b. The extracellular domain detects the microbial component
c. They facilitate changes in gene expression
d. They sense molecules not found in or on human cells
e. The cytoplasmic signaling domain contains a variable number of leucine-rich repeat regions (LRRs)

e. The cytoplasmic signaling domain contains a variable number of leucine-rich repeat regions (LRRs)

14

_____ binds to and retains NFkB in the cytosol.

a. MyD88
b. TRAF6
c. IkB
d. Ikk
e. IRAK4

c. IkB

15

All of the following are correct in reference to type I interferons except _____.

a. Type I interferons inhibit the replication of viruses promoting NK-cell proliferation and
differentiation into cytotoxic cells
b. In the presence of type I interferons, virus-infected cells undergo cell-surface changes that render
them more susceptible to attack by NK cells
c. Not only can most cells synthesize type I interferons, but they can also respond to them
d. The receptor for type I interferons is abundant in the cytosol
e. Type I interferons function in autocrine and paracrine fashions

d. The receptor for type I interferons is abundant in the cytosol

16

Which of the following does not describe a safety mechanism to ensure that only infected cells are attacked by NK cells?

a. The default state is one of active inhibition, which must be overcome by activating signals before killing occurs.
b. Intimate contact with target cells is required.
c. Activating receptors are induced only after encountering an infected cell.
d. No single receptor–ligand interaction induces cytotoxicity, but instead many combinations of
receptor–ligand interactions influence the decision to kill or not to kill a target cell.
e. All of the above describe a safety mechanism to ensure that only infected cells are attacked by NK cells

d. No single receptor–ligand interaction induces cytotoxicity, but instead many combinations of
receptor–ligand interactions influence the decision to kill or not to kill a target cell.

17

_____ is/are cytokine(s) produced by both macrophages and dendritic cells that promotes the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of NK cells.

a. IL-15
b. IL-1beta
c. CXCL8 and TNF-alpha
d. IL-12
e. IL-6

c. CXCL8 and TNF-alpha

18

An adaptor protein in the inflammasome is required to link _____ to the NOD-like receptor NLRP3.

a. MyD88
b. procaspase-1
c. RIPK2
d. TAKI
e. IKK.

d. TAKI

19

What is the name given to the earliest intracellular vesicle that contains material opsonized by macrophages?

a. opsonome
b. membrane-attack complex
c. lysosome
d. phagosome
e. phagolysosome.

d. phagosome

20

(T or F) The first domain of the TLR is an extracellular domain, also known as the pathogen-recognition domain, which contains a hydrophobic, leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) forming a horseshoe-shaped structure that binds specifically to arrays on microbial surfaces. The second domain of the TLR is the cytoplasmic signaling domain, also known as the Toll interleukin receptor (TIR) domain, which facilitates the transmission of information to the interior of the cell.

True

21

(T or F) When TLR3 on the surface of macrophages is bound to its LPS ligand, a signal transduction cascade is initiated that mediates signaling between the cell surface and the nucleus. The macrophage in turn begins to express particular genes encoding cytokines and adhesion molecules that are needed to induce a state of inflammation in the infected tissue.

False

22

Which of the following adaptor proteins participates in the activation pathway induced through either TLR3 or TLR4 that culminates in the synthesis of type I interferons?

a. C-reactive protein
b. MyD88
c. LPS-binding protein
d. TRIF
e. NF\kappaB

d. TRIF

23

Which of the following properties is common to macrophages and neutrophils in an uninfected individual?

a. life-span
b. anatomical location
c. ability to phagocytose
d. morphology
e. formation of pus

c. ability to phagocytose

24

Which of the following best describes an endogenous pyrogen?

a. cytokines made by pathogens that decrease body temperature
b. pathogen products that decrease body temperature
c. pathogen products that increase body temperature
d. cytokines made by the host that decrease body temperature
e. cytokines made by the host that increase body temperature

e. cytokines made by the host that increase body temperature

25

(T or F) During inflammation, host tissue may be damaged owing to the release of toxic oxygen derivatives produced by activated macrophages and neutrophils. Toxic oxygen species including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, hypohalite, and nitric oxide are produced during the respiratory burst in macrophages and neutrophils. Simultaneous extraphagosomal production of enzymes that neutralize these compounds occurs. Specifically, superoxide dismutase
metabolizes superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which is further metabolized by catalase to innocuous water and molecular oxygen.

True