Chapter 1: Scientific Foundations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Scientific Foundations Deck (37):
1

Nativism

-Plato
-certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn

2

Philosophical Empiricism

-Aristotle
-all knowledge acquired through experience

3

Empiricism

-John Locke
-"Tabula Rasa" (blank slate)
-Knowledge and thoughts come from experience

4

Mind Body Problem
Early Scholars

-mind entirely separate from and in control of body

5

Mind Body Problem
1500s

-Leonardo da Vinci challenged that doctrine

6

Mind Body Problem
1600s

-Cartesian Dualism
-suggested body and mind were separate but some mental functions resulted from bodily functions

7

Rene Descartes

-mind and body separate entities
-mind controls body most of time
-dualism bw mind and body

8

Thomas Hobbes

-argued against descartes

9

Franz Joseph Gall

-Phrenology
-now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific regions of brain

10

Pierre Flourens

-surgically removed brain pieces
-argued against Gall's methods

11

Paul Broca

-studied brain damaged patients (left frontal lobe) to link localization to ability

12

Structuralism

-analyze mind by breaking it down into its basic components
-Wilhelm Wundt:
a)"Father of Experimental Psych"
b)founded first psych lab
c)estab psych as separate science
d)consciousness: subjective experience of the world and the mind
e)introspection: subjective observation of one's own experience

13

Structuralism
Applying Physiological Methods to Psychology

-physiology:study of biological processes, esp in the human body
-Hermann von Hemoltz
a)studied reaction time and estimated length of nerve impulses

14

Structuralism
Edward Titchener

-student of Wundt's
-brought structuralism to US

15

Functionalism

-study of how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments

16

Functionalism
James

William James
-first to take scientific approach to psych
-wrote Principles of Psychology
-agreed with introspection technique but did not believe consciousness could be broken down into its elemental forms (distorted the nature of consciousness)
-mental activity must serve an important biological function
-psychologists must understand what those functions are
-inspired by Darwin

17

Charles Darwin

-wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
-natural selection: features of an organism that help it to survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations

18

Stanley Hall

-set up first psych lab in north america
-focused on development and education
-founded american journal of psychology

19

Development of Clinical Psychology

Jean-Martin Charcot and Pierre Janet
-studied hysteric patients through hypnosis
-hysteria: temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions as a result of emotionally upsetting experience
-when they practiced hypnosis on patience the symptoms would disappear

20

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalysis
-emphasizes influence of unconscious mental processes that shape feelings, thoughts, and behaviors

21

Humanists Response

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
-humanistic psych: approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings

22

Behaviorism

Behaviorism
-advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to scientific study of objectively observable behavior
John Watson
-goal: to predict and control behavior by studying it

23

Ivan Pavlov

Studied physiology of digestion and founded classical conditioning
-Classical Conditioning: stimulus-response

24

B.F Skinner

-developed the Skinner Box
-free will is an illusion and principles of reinforcement should be used to benefit society
-founded operant conditioning: behavior through reinforcement

25

Cognitive Psychology

-behaviorism ignored mental processes, genetic factors and evolutionary history
Cognitive Psychology:
-scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning

26

Cognitive Psychology
Illusions

-Illusions: errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality

27

Gestalt Psychology

-perceive things as whole rather than a compilation of parts

28

Max Wertheimer

-founded induced motion phenomena

29

Frederic Bartlett

-memory is not an objective, accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one's own beliefs, ideas, and point of view
-the way we think about things (cognitive frameworks) organizes how we experience the world

30

Jean Piaget

-studied cognitive development (errors) in children

31

Chomsky

Argued that skinner ignores creativity

32

Technology and Development of Cognitive Psychology

-idea that human brain is like a computer which lead to information processing theory

33

Donald Broadbent

-discovered attention has limited capacity

34

Mental Activity

-cognitive approaches showed that simple laws of behaviorism could not explain all learning
-George A Miller launched cognitive revolution

35

Rise of Cognitive Neuroscience

Karl Lashley
-lesioned rats' brains (unsuccessfully) to localize learning-->lead to physiological psychology
Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Emerged

36

Social and Cultural Perspectives

-human beings are social animals
-psychology is influenced by presence/absence of other people
-social psych: studies causes and consequences of social behavior

37

Science Informs Psychological Therapies

Maslow and Rogers pioneered a humanistic approach to the treatment of psychological disorders