Chapter 1 - Structure Bonding Flashcards Preview

CHE 203 - Organic Chemistry > Chapter 1 - Structure Bonding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Structure Bonding Deck (30)
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1
Q

The electron density is highest at the ____ and drops of exponentially ________

A

Nucleus, as distance from the nucleus increases

2
Q

As n increases, the shells are

A

Farther from the nucleus and higher in energy

3
Q

There are ___ 2p orbitals oriented at ___ angles to each other

A

Three, right angles

4
Q

What is the octet rule?

A

Electrons are transferred or shared between atoms to obtain a complete octet

5
Q

When electrons are shared evenly, the bond is said to be ______

A

Nonpolar covalent

6
Q

When electrons are not shared evenly between the atoms, the bond is _____

A

Polar covalent

7
Q

Electronegativities can be used to predict _____ and ____

A

Bond polarity, direction of the dipole moment

8
Q

Formal charge equation

A

FC = [group number] - [nonbonding electrons] - 1/2 [shared electrons]

9
Q

Spreading electrons over multiple atoms (delocalization) leads to _________

A

Greater stability

10
Q

True or False
Resonance forms are Lewis Structures that can be inter converted by moving electrons but not atoms

A

True, atoms can never be moved

11
Q

Resonance forms can be compared using the following criteria:

A
  1. Has as many octets as possible
  2. Has as many bonds as possible
  3. Has the negative charge on the most electronegative atom and/or positive charge on the most electro positive atom
  4. Has as little charge separation as possible
12
Q

Molecular vs empirical formula

A

Number of atoms of each element vs relative ratios of each element present

13
Q

Combining atomic orbitals between two DIFFERENT atoms is ____

A

Bond formation —> Molecular orbitals

14
Q

Combining orbitals on the SAME atom is ______

A

Hybridization

15
Q

The bonding molecular orbital is ____ in energy than the original atomic orbitals

A

Lower (electrons get filled)

16
Q

The anti bonding MO is ____ in energy than the atomic orbitals

A

Higher

17
Q

A double bond consists of a ____ bond and a ___ bond

A

Sigma, pi

18
Q

A triple bond consists of a ____ bond and two ____ bonds

A

Sigma, pi

19
Q

Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory is used to _______

A

Explain the molecular shape of molecules

20
Q

SP hybrid orbitals result when

A

Orbitals in the same atom combine

21
Q

What shape is associated with sp hybrid orbitals?

A

Linear electron pair geometry (180 degree bond angles)

22
Q

Sp2 hybrid orbitals form when

A

One s orbital and two p orbitals combine to form 3 sp2 orbitals

23
Q

What shape is associated with sp2 hybrid orbitals?

A

Trigonal planar geometry (120 degree bond angle)

24
Q

Sp3 hybrid orbitals form when

A

One s and 3 p orbitals combine to form four sp3 orbitals

25
Q

What shape is associated with sp3 hybrid orbitals?

A

Tetrahedral (109.5 degree bond angles)

26
Q

How can you determine the hybridization of an atom?

A

Count how many bonding atoms are connected (bonds and lone pairs)

27
Q

Single bonds are allowed to rotate giving a variety of ______

A

Conformations

28
Q

True or False
Double bonds can rotate

A

False

29
Q

Constitutional isomers differ in _____

A

Bonding sequence (same total # of carbons and hydrogens)

30
Q

Stereoisomers differ only in ______

A

Arrangement of the atoms in space