Chapter 10-12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10-12 Deck (36):
1

ideal gas law

pressure, volume, number of moles, and temp influence the gas
-molecules have elastic collisions
- molecules do not interact with each other= ideal

2

Boyle's law

volume of gas at constant temp is inversely proportional to its pressure

3

KMT

if particles of gas are in smaller volume, the increased frequency of collisions increases the pressure

4

Charles' law

volume of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature

5

Avogadro's law

volume of a gas at constant temp and pressure is proportional to the quantity in substance (number of molecules)

6

density of gas

calculated by dividing molar mass by molecular volume

7

partial pressure

contribution to the total pressure made by a component in a mixture of gases
-atmospheric pressure is the sum of partial pressures of N2, O2...

8

dalton's law

total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of all the gases in the mixture

9

mole fraction

ratio of number of moles of a particular component in the mixture to the total number of moles in the mixture

10

osmosis

spontaneous migration of water through semi permeable membrane

11

hypertonic

solution containing a higher concentration of solutes than inside the boundary= net osmotic flow out of cell

12

isotonic

solution that contains a lower concentration of solutes than inside cell (net osmotic flow into cell)

13

osmotic pressure (pi)

pressure applied across a semiperm membrane to stop the flow of water from the compartment containing pure solvent/ a less concentrated solution to the compartment containing a more concentrated solution

14

colligative property

characteristics of solutions that depend upon the concentration and not the identity of the particles dissolved in solvent
-osmotic pressure is colligative= identify of solute doesn't make difference in calculations

15

electrolytes as solute

one mole of it produces more than one mole of particles

16

van't Hoff's factors

ratio of concentrations of solute particles in a solution to the concentration of particles that would be there if a solute did not dissociate

17

ion pair

cluster formed when cation and anion associate with each other in solution
-osmotic pressure of a solution based on molar conc of the solute
pi=iMRT

18

reverse osmosis

purification process in which solvent is forced through semiperm membranes, leaving dissolved impurities behind

19

vapor pressure

pressure exerted by the gas in equilibrium with its liquid phase at a given temp

20

volatile

having a significant vapor pressure at a given temp= when enough molecules vaporize to produce a significant VP at given temp
*the higher the VP, the more volatile the liquid

21

Clausius-clapeyron equation

relates the VP of a substance at different temps to its heat of vaporization
-slope of the line tells about the delta H vap= enthalpy of vaporization

22

fractional distillation

technique to separate the components of mixtures based upon differences in their volatilities through selective evaporation and condensation

23

Raoult's law

total VP of an ideal solution depends on the VP of each component in the solution and its mole fraction in the liquid mixture
-applies to ideal solutions

24

nonvolatile solute on volatile solvents

presence of solute lowers the VP of solvent

25

boiling point elevation

phenomenon that the bp of a liquid will be higher when added with solute (nonvolatile and volatile)
=decrease in vapor pressure of the solution relative to that of pure substance at all temperatures= increase in BP

26

molality

moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
-used when calculating bp elevation or fp depression
-doesnt change with temp

27

spontaneous process

process that one started occurs without outside intervention

28

nonspontaneous process

process that only occurs as long as energy is continually added to the system

29

entropy (S)

measure of how dispersed (disorganized) the energy in a system is at a specific temp

30

second law of thermodynamics

the entropy of the universe increased in any spontaneous process
-higher entropy with higher microstates

31

microstate

unique distribution of particles among energy levels

32

boltzman equation

S=(Kb)ln(W)
-W= number of microstates
-Kb= blotz constant

33

third law of thermodynamics

entropy of a perfect crystal is zero at absolute zero
-provides baseline for entropy

34

standard molar entropy

absolute entropy of one mol of a substance in its standard state at 298K and 1 bar of pressure

35

entropy trends

entropy increases with:
-increased temp, volume, and increased number of independent particles

36

molecular movement types

translational= movement through space
rotational= spinning motion around axis perpendicular to bond
vibrational= movement of atoms towards/ away from each other
**entropy increases with the complexity of molecular structure increases
= more bonds= more opportunities for motion