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1

Emotional development

Emotional development is the study of emotions, including when people learn emotions and how they deal with their emotions.
> Emotional development allows attachment to occur between infants and their caregivers.

2

Attachment

A strong, close and emotional bond that develops between an infant and their caregiver and lasts for many years. The rst few years of life is a sensitive period for forming a bond with caregivers, as it may be more di cult but possible to form strong bonds with caregivers later in life. helps people form relationships later in life with friends or lovers

3

John Bowlby's theory of attachment

He believed that attachment occurs in the rst year of a child’s life, and that the reactions and behaviours of the caregiver are crucial. Bowlby stated that the development of attachment is biological and genetically inherited and typical of human behaviour. In order to keep caregivers close, which is necessary for their survival, infants cry, coo, smile, crawl, walk and follow their mothers.

4

Privation

If attachment never occurs – that is, if a child never forms a close relationship with anyone – this is called privation. Privation can cause permanent emotional damage

5

Harry Harlows studies discovered ....

Harry Harlow’s work focused on attachment in primates. He discovered that contact comfort is more important in creating attachment than feeding and nourishment.

6

Mary Ainsworth theory, strange situation

When studying attachment theories we must consider the quality of attachment between infants and their caregivers by observing behaviours.
Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues (1978) were the rst researchers to study di erences in the quality of attachment. Rather than using naturalistic observation techniques, Ainsworth created a laboratory testing technique known as the Strange Situation. Figure 10.4 shows the layout of the laboratory for the Strange Situation tests.
The Strange Situation allowed Ainsworth to measure infant attachment by having infants experience a sequence of events, including separations and reunions with their mothers, and introductions to an adult stranger. The ow-chart in Figure 10.5 outlines the Strange Situation procedure.

7

Figure 10.5

Photo

8

3 types of attachment

Insecure avoidant, secure, insecure resistant

9

Insecure avoidant

These infants rarely get upset when a stranger enters the room. They do not cling to their caregiver at any stage. They show no distress when their caregiver leaves the room and can ignore or avoid them when they return. These infants do become distressed when left alone; however, they can be comforted by either their caregiver or the stranger. Both adults are treated the same way by the infants.

10

Secure

These infants will play happily when their caregiver is present, trusting that their caregiver will be there if they need them. These infants are very attached to their caregiver and will become distressed when their caregiver leaves. A stranger can comfort the infant, but is treated differently to the caregiver. When the caregiver returns, these infants will seek immediate contact and are delighted when they are reunited. In this instance, infants are distressed by the absence of the caregiver, not by being alone.

11

Insecure resistant

These infants are more clingy, cry more and do not explore or play as much as Type A or B. They become extremely distressed when their caregiver leaves and resist any comfort from the stranger. These infants seek contact with the caregiver when reunited, but will not display joy during this time. Instead they will continue to be distressed, cry and will not play. These infants appear to be anxious and negative.

12

Piaget's four stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor stage, pre operational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operational stage

13

Schemata

These are mental structures/frameworks that organise past experiences and provide an understanding of future experiences. In infants, schemata are simple: they are the basic blocks of knowledge, such as
the inborn re exes of sucking or grasping. As children grow, schemata become more complex in order to incorporate experiences or information that has been gathered.

14

Assimilation

Assimilation is the process whereby new experiences are combined with existing schemata. For instance, when an infant experiences a new toy for the rst time, they may put it in their mouth and suck on it. This behaviour demonstrates that the infant is trying to t information about this new toy into their existing schema (mental framework) of sucking. Similarly, if a child saw a toy truck for the rst time they would examine it and t it into their schema of cars, since the truck has similar qualities as a car.

15

Accomodation

However, if an infant or child discovers that new information does not t into their schemata, then accommodation occurs. Accommodation is when new experiences cause schemata to change or modify. For instance, if an infant discovers that the object they are trying to suck is too big or tastes awful, or the child discovers that the truck is bigger than a car, then these thoughts cause schemata to change and become more complex.
These processes help infants and children understand their world.

16

Object permanence

Infants come to understand that an object still exists when it is no longer seen.

17

Symbolic thinking

Children develop symbols to represent objects or events. This thinking allows the child to participate in pretend or make-believe play.

18

Animism

Children will believe that inanimate objects are alive for example, talking about toy cars as people.

19

Egocentrism

Children are unable to view the world from someone else’s perspective.

20

Centration

Children can only focus on one aspect of a task at a time: for example, if a child is asked to divide blocks according to size and colour, it is likely they will divide the blocks either on size or colour, but not both.

21

Seriation

Children will have difficulty arranging objects according to one dimension for example, arranging sticks from shortest to longest.

22

Conservation

Children lack conservation; they cannot understand that objects stay the same despite changes in appearance.

23

Reversibility

Children are unable to realise that an action can be done and then undone.

24

Sensorimotor age and explanation

Birth - 2

Infants learn about their world through their senses (hearing, seeing) and by actions (motor) such as grasping or pulling.

25

Pre operational age and explanation

2-7

Children continue to develop,
and they use symbols, images and language to represent their world.

26

Concrete operational age and explanation

7-12

Children can perform basic mental problems that involve physical objects.

27

Formal operational age and explanation

12+

Children are able to think logically and methodically about physical and abstract problems.

28

Formal operational developments and limitations

Children begin to think more flexibly. They can do hypothetical problems, and can form and test hypotheses.

29

Concrete operational d and l

Children begin to understand reversibility and conservation, and display less centration and egocentrism. Children may struggle to solve problems that require abstract thinking.

30

Pre operational d and l 7 items

> Symbolic thinking: Children develop symbols to represent objects or events. This thinking allows the child to participate in pretend or make-believe play.
> Animism: Children will believe that inanimate objects are alive for example, talking about toy cars as people.
> Egocentrism: Children are unable to view the world from someone else’s perspective.
FIGURE 10.11 Piaget’s Three Mountain Experiment illustrates egocentrism in pre-operational children. Four-year-old children stood in front of a model of three mountains and were shown 10 pictures of the mountains from other sides of the model. Most children could pick out their own view. When asked to select a view from another person’s perspective, most selected their own or another incorrect view.
> Centration: Children can only focus on one aspect of a task at a time: for example, if a child is asked to divide blocks according to size and colour, it is likely they will divide the blocks either on size or colour, but not both.
> Seriation: Children will have difficulty arranging objects according to one dimension for example, arranging sticks from shortest to longest.
> Conservation: Children lack conservation; they cannot understand that objects stay the same despite changes in appearance.


Child says both rows have the same number
Preoperational child says bottom row has more
Preoperational child says top row has more
FIGURE 10.12 A conservation of numbers task – pre-operational children are unable to understand that objects stay the same despite changes in their appearance.
> Irreversibility: Children are unable to realise that an action can be done and then undone.