Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

Process Tech > Chapter 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (44)
Loading flashcards...
1

A driven shaft fitted with rotating wheels or irregular shape (cams) that open and close the valves in the engine.

Camshaft

2

The ratio of the volume of the cylinder at the start of a stroke compared to the smaller (compressed) volume of the cylinder at the end of a stroke.

Compression ratio

3

A component that connects a piston to a crankshaft.

Connecting rod

4

A fluid that circulates around or through an engine to remove the heat or combustion. The fluid may be a liquid (example water or antifreeze) or a gas (example air or freon).

Coolant

5

A component that converts the piston's up and down or forward and backward motion into rotational motion.

Crankshaft

6

The casing of an engine that houses the pistons and cylinders.

Engine block

7

A chamber or cavity in an engine that collects exhaust gases and directs them out of the engine.

Exhaust port

8

Valve in the head at the end of each cylinder. It opens and directs the exhaust from the cylinder to the exhaust port.

Exhaust valve

9

The component of an engine on the top of the piston cylinders that contains the intake and exhaust valves.

Head

10

An air channel that directs fuel gases to an intake valve.

Intake port

11

A valve located in the head, at the top of each cylinder, that opens and allows feul gases to enter the cylinder.

Intake valve

12

A component that serves as a reservoir for the oil used to lubricate internal combustion engine parts.

Oil pan/sump

13

A component that moves up and down or backward and forward inside a cylinder.

Piston

14

A flat steel ring or sleeve coated with soft metal and placed between the connecting rod and the crankshaft.

Rod bearing

15

A component in a gas turbine attached to the shaft of the turbine. The steam or gas causes the turbine to spin by impinging on the rotating blades. The steam or gas slows and is redirected as it transfers energy to the rotating blades.

Rotating blade

16

A component in an internal combustion engine that supplies the spark to ignite the air/fuel mixture.

Spark plug

17

A set of nozzles or stationery blades plus a set of rotating blades.

Stage

18

A component in a gas turbine attached to the case that does not rotate. Stationary blades change the direction of the flow of the steam or combustion gas, and redirect it to the next stage of rotating blades.

Stationary blade

19

A cover over the head that keeps the valves and camshaft clean and free of dust or debris's, and keeps lubricating oil contained.

Valve cover

20

Engines in which the combustion (burning) of fuel and an oxidizer (usually air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. As the fuel is combusted, and exothermic (heat producing) reaction occurs that creates high temperatures. High pressure gases expand and act on various parts of the engine (example pistons are rotors), causing movement.

Internal combustion engines

21

Gasoline engines were invented in 1876 by ___________________.

Nicholas Otto

22

___________________ developed the idea for the diesel engine and obtained the German patent in 1892.

Rudolf Diesel

23

Can be an efficient resource in the process industries because the steam required to drive them can be produced through the combustion of waste products. As these waste products are combusted in a furnace or other combustion device, heat is produced. This heat is then used to generate the steam necessary to power the turbine. They may also be selected when a powerful engine is needed to drive large equipment (example pumps, compressors, or generators) because they're smaller and more compact than similarly sized electric motors.

Steam turbines

24

Energy is extracted from the combustion exhaust gas to improve efficiency. That is, while the turbine extracts most of the energy, the gases exiting the turbine are still very hot and could be used to boil water and produce steam.

Combined cycle engine

25

Heavier and oilier than gasoline, it also has a different odor.

Diesel

26

________________ can be classified as two cycle or four cycle. While both engine types contain the same four processes the way they accomplish them differs.

Internal combustion engines

27

Complete the same four processes as four cycle engines do, but they complete them in two strokes instead of four.

Two cycle engines

28

Gasoline and diesel engines function using similar four stage engine cycles:

1. Intake
2. Compression and ignition
3. Expansion and work
4. Exhaust

29

In a ______________ engine, only air is in the cylinder during the compression stroke.

Diesel

30

All engines have a lubrication system for the bearings in moving parts. Because one of the functions of the lubrication system is to _______________________, there is a cooling system for the oil.

remove excess heat