Chapter 10 - A Democratic Revolution, 1800-1844 Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 10 - A Democratic Revolution, 1800-1844 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 - A Democratic Revolution, 1800-1844 Deck (32):
1

franchise

the right to vote

2

notables

northern landlords, slave-owning planters, and seaport merchants who dominated politics in early America

3

"political machines"

term referring to political parties, given that they efficiently wove together the interests of diverse groups

4

Martin Van Buren

chief architect of emerging party government system and eighth president

5

spoils system

the process of leaders distributing offices to supporters, friends, and relatives after winning an election

6

caucus

a meeting of party leaders

7

American System

integrated mercantilist program of national economic development

8

internal improvements

public works (roads and canals)

9

Twelfth Amendment

established that the House would choose the president among the three highest vote-getters in the case of no absolute majority (important in election of 1824)

10

corrupt bargain

a government deal made for personal gains; committed by John Quincy Adams when he appointed Henry Clay to Secretary of State after he helped Adams win the election in 1824

11

consolidated government

a powerful and potentially oppressive national administration

12

Tariff of Abominations

1828 tariff that significantly raised duties on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods, leading to southern resentment

13

Andrew Jackson

lost the 1824 election, War of 1812 hero, rallied massive support (Democratic Party) to be elected the seventh president, first "commoner" to hold office

14

nullification

the argument that a state has the right to void laws passed by Congress within its own borders

15

John C. Calhoun

contender in the election of 1828, vice president under Jackson, promoted the localist interpretation to the federal union

16

states' rights

an interpretation of the Constitution declaring that states could interpret and decide whether or not to follow federal laws

17

Second Bank of the United States

privately managed and operated bank under a twenty-year charter from the federal government, which owned 20% of its stock

18

Daniel Webster

Senator of Massachusetts; presented nationalist interpretation of the Constitution

19

Nicholas Biddle

arrogant president of the Second Bank

20

Roger B. Taney

head of Treasury Department under Jackson who transferred federal government's gold and silver from the Second Bank to various state banks; later appointed Chief Justice

21

Indian Removal Act of 1830

authorized president to negotiate with Indian tribes in the south for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands

22

Black Hawk

Sauk leader who refused to leave his land; 85% of his warriors were killed in the Bad Axe Massacre

23

Trail of Tears

1,200 mile resettlement journey of Cherokees to the Indian Territory

24

classical liberalism (laissez-faire)

principle of limiting government's role in the economy

25

Whigs

the second national party; arose out of anger over Andrew Jackson's policies and conduct

26

Anti-Masons

short-lived party formed to oppose the Order of Freemasonry (eventually gravitated toward the Whig Party)

27

Panic of 1837

1837-1843; second major economic crisis in the United States

28

Working Men's Parties

coalitions of artisans and laborers

29

Specie Circular

executive order that required the Treasury Department to accept only gold and silver in payment for lands in the national domain

30

William Henry Harrison

military hero of the War of 1812; ninth president and first to die in office

31

John Tyler

Harrison's vice president who became the tenth president after his death

32

ethnocultural politics

the practice of voting along ethnic and religious lines

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