Chapter 10: Acquiring Information Systems Through Projects Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Acquiring Information Systems Through Projects Deck (55)
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Software development (or application development).

When an organization builds software


Five basic ways to acquire a software application:

Buy it and use it as is.

Buy it and customize it. (Most Common)

Rent or lease it.

Build it yourself.

Outsource it.


Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK)

Provides project managers, sponsors, and team leaders with a large array of accepted project management techniques and practices


Elements of a project

1) Begin with a set of goals or objectives
-from these, a scope for the project is developed, and project managers are given resources such as people, money, and work space

2) projects usually have a start and end date


IT projects

Projects of all shapes and sizes that renew and adapt IT infrastructure

Include: installation of a new email application, a CRM system, or an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system


IT projects are rarely if ever exclusively about _______: They affect data, people, and processes.



Information technology project management (ITPM)

The collection of techniques and methods that project managers use to plan, coordinate, and complete IT projects


Tools included in ITPM

-work breakdown structures;
-budgeting methods;
-graphical scheduling methods, such as PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) and Gantt charts;
-risk management techniques;
-communication planning; and high-tech team development


The guide to the PMBOK suggests that there are five process groups in any project:

(1) initiating,
(2) planning,
(3) executing,
(4) controlling and monitoring, and
(5) closing

Don't think of these as sperate entities, but as overlapping steps in the process


Nine project knowledge areas:

(1) integration management,
(2) scope management,
(3) time management,
(4) cost management,
(5) quality management,
(6) human resources management,
(7) communications management,
(8) risk management, and
(9) procurement management. Inside each of these knowledge areas are techniques that project managers use to manage their projects.


Project management professionals (PMPs)

Individuals certified by the Product Management Institute as having product management skills


The IT department is generally responsible for providing IT services to an organization and they provide two services

The first is maintaining the current IT infrastructure,

Second is renewing and adapting the infrastructure to keep IT working effectively in the future.


IT Operations or IT Services

Service maintenance, protection, and management of IT infrastructure


The distinction between operations and projects

One, operational work and project work tend to attract two different types of IT professionals.

IT people who prefer to work in operations often want to specialize in particular technologies such as Networking specialists, operating systems specialists, database administrators, and hardware technicians


Production systems

The entire set of systems that support operations


Keywords in IT operations

Stability, predictability, accountability, reliability, and security


Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)

Well-recognized collection of books providing a framework of best practice approaches to IT operations

ITIL provides a large set of management procedures that are designed to support businesses in achieving value from IT operations


IT project risk

Structural risk, volatility risk, and project process; performance, knowledge resources, organizational support, project management practices, and both process and product performance


Most important risks from IT projects

Recognize that the primary risks do not necessarily emerge from the technology


Systems development life cycle (SDLC)

Classic process used to develop information systems. These basic tasks of systems development are combined into the following phases: system definition, requirements analysis, component design, implementation, and system maintenance (fic or enhance)


Systems development

The process of creating and maintaining information systems. Sometimes called systems analysis and design


The number of phases in the SDLC varies by organization and author.

To keep it simple, we will look at a five-phase process:

System definition

Requirements analysis

Component design


System maintenance


agile methods

Development methods, such as rapid application development (RAD) and object-oriented systems development (OOD), and extreme programming


Systems analysis

Process of creating and maintaining information systems, (aka systems development)


System definition phase

First phase in the SDLC, in which developers, with the help of eventual users, define the new system's goals and scope, assess its feasibility, form a project team, amd plan the project


Feasibility has four dimensions:

1) cost feasibility,
2) schedule feasibility,
3) technical feasibility,
4) and organizational feasibility


Technical feasibility

refers to whether existing information technology is likely to be compatible with the needs of the new system


Organizational feasibility

concerns whether the new system fits within the organization’s customs, culture, charter, or legal requirements.


requirements analysis phase

Second phase in the SDLC, in which developers conduct user interviews, evaluate existing systems, determine new forms / reports/ queries, identify new features and functions, including security and create the data model


systems analysts

Information systems professional who understand both business and technology. They are active throughout the system development process and play a key role in moving the project from conception to conversion and ultimately maintenance. System, analysts integrate the work of the programmers, testers, and users