Chapter 10-CNS, Cranial nerves and Spinal nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10-CNS, Cranial nerves and Spinal nerves Deck (28):
1

What provides protection and covering for the spinal cord?

1.Vertebrae
2.Spinal meninges
3.Cerebrospinal Fluid

2

What are the three layers of connective tissue found in spinal meninges?

1.Dura mater
2.Arachnoid mater
3.Pia mater

3

Name the structures covered by the meninges?

Spinal cord and Brain

4

What protects the spinal cord?Which structures provide additional protection to the spinal cord?

1.Vetebrae
2.Vertebral ligaments, meninges and CSF

5

What is the cauda equina?

The roots of the
spinal nerves or
cauda equina, angle
down the vertebral
canal like wisps of
flowing hair.

6

Where does the spinal cord begin and end?

Spinal cord extends from the medulla
oblongata, to the upper border of L2
(ending with
the conus medullaris)

7

What structures are found in gray matter?

1.neuronal cell bodies
2.dendrites
3.unmyelinated axons
4.axon terminals
5.neuroglia.

8

What does white matter consist of?

The white matter consists primarily of myelinated axons of neurons and is organized into white columns

9

What are the connective tissue layer that provide protection for spinal nerves?

Individual axons, whether myelinated or unmyelinated, are wrapped in endoneurium. Groups of axons with their endoneurium are arranged in bundles,
called fascicles, each of which is wrapped in
perineurium. The
superficial covering over the entire nerve is
the epineurium.

10

What is the reflex arch?

The pathway followed by nerve impulses that produce a
reflex is known as a reflex arc. Using the patellar reflex (knee jerk reflex) as an example, the basic components of a reflex include:
1) sensory receptor,
2) sensory neuron,
3) integrating center,
4) motor neuron, and
5) effector.

11

What are the different parts of the brain?

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Diencephalon
Brain stem

12

What makes up the Diencephalon?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalamus

13

What makes up the Brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

14

What is CSF and its function? Where is it produced?

CSF is a clear, colorless liquid that carries oxygen, glucose, and other chemicals to neurons and neuroglia and removes their wastes and toxic substances.
CSF circulates through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord, and through cavities called ventricles.
The sites of CSF production are the choroid plexuses

15

Name all the twelve cranial nerves?

Olfactory I nerve
Optic II nerve
Oculomotor III nerve
Trochlear IV nerve
Trigeminal V nerve
Abducens VI nerve
Facial VII nerve
Vestibulocochlear VIII nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve IX nerve
Vagus X nerve
Accessory XI nerve
hypoglossal XII nerve

16

What is CN I and name function?

Olfactory nerve - sense of smell

17

What is CN II and name its function?

Optic nerve -sense of sight

18

What are CN III, CN IV and CN VI? Name their functions?

Oculomotor
Trochlear
Abducens

19

What is the CN V name its function?

Trigeminal nerve -major sensory nerve of the face

20

What is the CN VII and its function?

Facial nerve -has five large somatic branches which innervate the muscle of facial expression.

21

What is CN VIII and its function?

Vestibulocochlear nerve- from the inner ear, the vestibular component carries information on balance while the cochlear component enables hearing.

22

What happens when CN VIII is damaged?

Damage of CN VIII causes vertigo, ringing in the ears, and/or deafness.

23

What is CN IX and its function?

This nerve carries some taste sensations as well as ANS impulses to salivary glands and the mechanoreceptors of the carotid body and carotid sinus (senses changes in BP).

24

What is CN X and its function?

Vagus nerve (“the wanderer”), which carries most of the parasympathetic motor efferent to the organs of the thorax and abdomen.

25

What is CN XI and its function?

Spinal accessory nerve. This nerve supplies somatic motor innervation to the Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid muscles

26

What is CN XII and its function?

Glossopharyngeal nerve. This is a very large nerve (a lot of resources) to be devoted solely to the tongue—it takes a lot more coordination than you might guess to chew, talk, and swallow without injuring our tongue.

27

What does the midbrain connect?

Pons to Diencephalon

28

What are cerebral peduncles?

Anterior part of Midbrain that consists of a pair of large tracts