Chapter 10: EKG Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: EKG Exam Deck (74)
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1

What kind of leads are standard leads?

Bipolar

2

what are bipolar leads?

they measure 2 directions at the same time, using 2 limb electrodes to record the electrical activity give off by the heart

3

what do the standard leads consist of?

Lead I, Lead II, Lead 3

4

What does Lead 1 do?

Records electrical activity from RA (-) to the LA (+)

5

what kind of wave does lead 1 produce?

positive wave

6

what does lead 2 do?

records electrical activity from RA (-) to the LL (+)

7

what does lead 2 produce?

positive upward deflection

8

what does lead 3 do?

records electrical activity from LA(-) to LL (+)

9

what kind of leads are augmented leads?

unipolar

10

what are unipolar leads?

measure 1 electrode on the body, measured in one direction only

11

what are the types of augmented leads?

aVR, aVL, aVF

12

what does lead aVR do?

records the electrical activity from midway between LA and LL to the RA

13

aVR has what kind of deflection?

negative

14

what does lead aVL do?

records electricity from midpoint between RA & LL to the LA

15

what does lead aVF do?

records the electrical activity from midpoint between RA & LA to the LL

16

another name for the chest leads

precordial

17

how do leads 1, 2, 3 & aVR, aVL, aFV record voltage?

side to side or from top to bottom of the heart

18

what kind of leads are precordial leads?

UNIPOLAR

19

what are unipolar leads?

measure 1 electrode on the body; measured in 1 direction only

20

how many precordial leads are there and where are they placed?

6 leads placed on the chest

21

what are the names of the 6 precordial leads?

v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6

22

what do the 6 leads do?

record the activity between 6 points on the chest and within the heart

23

what do the PQRS waves represent?

depolarization

24

what does the P wave represent?

atrial depolarization and contraction

25

what does the QRS wave represent?

ventricular depolarization and contraction

26

what does the T wave represent?

ventricular repolarization (electrical recovery)

27

what is depolarization?

contraction of stimulated heart muscle

28

what is repolarization?

reaching the resting state before the contraction of the heart muscle happens again

29

How to calculate ABI

Highest Pressure in right foot
______________________
Highest Pressure in Both Arms

30

Why calculate ABI?

a way of diagnosing peripheral artery disease

31

What is a Holter monitor?

Ambulatory ECG devices that is small, wearable & portable for cardiac monitoring

32

how long is a holter monitor worn usually?

24-48 hours

33

what is a holter monitor used for?

to check heart rhythm to figure out irregular heart rhythms

34

Spirometry def...

measurement of lung capacity, volume, and flow rates used in evaluation of asthma, broncitis, COPD & emphysema

35

coaching a patient for spirometry...

Fill lungs, hold breath, make a seal around the tube, blow hard and fast, keep blowing 5-4-3-2-1

36

why would spirometry be ordered?

-screening test for pulmonary obstruction
-check lung capacity
-diagnose conditions like asthma

37

what is a peak flow?

measurement of expiratory effort. persons max speed of expiration used to measure patient's ability to breath out

38

how many times is peak flow done and how do you get number?

-it is done 3 times
-number is the average of the 3 blows

39

what is a normal sinus rhythm?

normal heart rhythm and normal EKG

40

what are artifacts?

interferences or issues when conducting an EKG

41

what is another name for muscle artifact?

somatic tremor

42

how would you correct muscle artifact?

-have patient sit on their hands
-provide blanket if patient is cold

43

how would you correct wandering baseline artifact?

-have the patient hold their breath for 15 seconds if the patients rising/falling chest is causing drift

44

how would you correct AC interference?

If the power cord is running under the exam table, find another plug or move the table

45

how would you correct interrupted baseline interference?

-if the electrode is not making contact because of hair , shave the site and reapply new electrode
-apply hypoallergenic tape to reinforce electrodes

46

what is the normal heart rate?

-60-100 BPM

47

what is the normal respiratory rate?

12-24 RPM

48

what is the ground lead?

right leg

49

fibrillation

life threatening condition

50

FET

forced expiratory time

51

FVC

forced vital capacity

52

FEV1

forced volume in first second

53

FEV1/FVC ration

volume inhaled in the first second divided by total volume exhaled

54

tachycardia

fast heart rate

55

diastole

relaxation phase in the heart

56

systole

contracting phase of the heart

57

bradycardia

slow heart rate

58

intercostal

between the ribs

59

where are the leg leads placed?

mid-inner calf

60

where are the arm leads placed?

inner bicep

61

where is the V1 lead placed?

4th intercostal next to sternum

62

where is the v2 lead placed?

4th intercostal (across from V1)

63

where is the v4 lead placed?

mid clavicle 5th intercostal

64

where is the v3 lead placed?

midway between v2 & v4 in diagonal

65

where is the v6 lead placed?

midaxillary "straight" across from v4

66

where is the v5 lead placed?

in line "middle" with v4 & v6

67

what order are the v1-v6 leads placed?

-v1
-v2
-v4
-v3
-v6
-v5

68

what is the conduction of the heart?

-SA node
-AV node
-Bundle of HIS
-R+L Bundle Branch
-Purkinje Fibers

69

what is the blood flow of the heart?

-Inferior/superior vena cava
-Right atrium
-Tricuspid Valve
-Right Ventricle
-Pulmonary Valve
-Pulmonary Artery
-Lungs
-Pulmonary Vein
-Left Atrium
-Bicuspid Valve
-Left Ventricle
-Aortic Valve
-Aorta

70

what is the measurement for amplitude adjusted standardization?

10 mm

71

how wide is each square on EKG paper?

25 mm.

72

what does the septum do?

divides heart into two sides

73

what do the atria do?

upper chambers receive blood from body & lungs

74

what do the ventricles do?

send blood to lungs and body