Flashcards in Chapter 10: EKG Exam Deck (74)
What kind of leads are standard leads?
what are bipolar leads?
they measure 2 directions at the same time, using 2 limb electrodes to record the electrical activity give off by the heart
what do the standard leads consist of?
Lead I, Lead II, Lead 3
What does Lead 1 do?
Records electrical activity from RA (-) to the LA (+)
what kind of wave does lead 1 produce?
what does lead 2 do?
records electrical activity from RA (-) to the LL (+)
what does lead 2 produce?
positive upward deflection
what does lead 3 do?
records electrical activity from LA(-) to LL (+)
what kind of leads are augmented leads?
what are unipolar leads?
measure 1 electrode on the body, measured in one direction only
what are the types of augmented leads?
aVR, aVL, aVF
what does lead aVR do?
records the electrical activity from midway between LA and LL to the RA
aVR has what kind of deflection?
what does lead aVL do?
records electricity from midpoint between RA & LL to the LA
what does lead aVF do?
records the electrical activity from midpoint between RA & LA to the LL
another name for the chest leads
how do leads 1, 2, 3 & aVR, aVL, aFV record voltage?
side to side or from top to bottom of the heart
what kind of leads are precordial leads?
what are unipolar leads?
measure 1 electrode on the body; measured in 1 direction only
how many precordial leads are there and where are they placed?
6 leads placed on the chest
what are the names of the 6 precordial leads?
v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6
what do the 6 leads do?
record the activity between 6 points on the chest and within the heart
what do the PQRS waves represent?
what does the P wave represent?
atrial depolarization and contraction
what does the QRS wave represent?
ventricular depolarization and contraction
what does the T wave represent?
ventricular repolarization (electrical recovery)
what is depolarization?
contraction of stimulated heart muscle
what is repolarization?
reaching the resting state before the contraction of the heart muscle happens again
How to calculate ABI
Highest Pressure in right foot
Highest Pressure in Both Arms
Why calculate ABI?
a way of diagnosing peripheral artery disease
What is a Holter monitor?
Ambulatory ECG devices that is small, wearable & portable for cardiac monitoring
how long is a holter monitor worn usually?
what is a holter monitor used for?
to check heart rhythm to figure out irregular heart rhythms
measurement of lung capacity, volume, and flow rates used in evaluation of asthma, broncitis, COPD & emphysema
coaching a patient for spirometry...
Fill lungs, hold breath, make a seal around the tube, blow hard and fast, keep blowing 5-4-3-2-1
why would spirometry be ordered?
-screening test for pulmonary obstruction
-check lung capacity
-diagnose conditions like asthma
what is a peak flow?
measurement of expiratory effort. persons max speed of expiration used to measure patient's ability to breath out
how many times is peak flow done and how do you get number?
-it is done 3 times
-number is the average of the 3 blows
what is a normal sinus rhythm?
normal heart rhythm and normal EKG
what are artifacts?
interferences or issues when conducting an EKG
what is another name for muscle artifact?
how would you correct muscle artifact?
-have patient sit on their hands
-provide blanket if patient is cold
how would you correct wandering baseline artifact?
-have the patient hold their breath for 15 seconds if the patients rising/falling chest is causing drift
how would you correct AC interference?
If the power cord is running under the exam table, find another plug or move the table
how would you correct interrupted baseline interference?
-if the electrode is not making contact because of hair , shave the site and reapply new electrode
-apply hypoallergenic tape to reinforce electrodes
what is the normal heart rate?
what is the normal respiratory rate?
what is the ground lead?
life threatening condition
forced expiratory time
forced vital capacity
forced volume in first second
volume inhaled in the first second divided by total volume exhaled
fast heart rate
relaxation phase in the heart
contracting phase of the heart
slow heart rate
between the ribs
where are the leg leads placed?
where are the arm leads placed?
where is the V1 lead placed?
4th intercostal next to sternum
where is the v2 lead placed?
4th intercostal (across from V1)
where is the v4 lead placed?
mid clavicle 5th intercostal
where is the v3 lead placed?
midway between v2 & v4 in diagonal
where is the v6 lead placed?
midaxillary "straight" across from v4
where is the v5 lead placed?
in line "middle" with v4 & v6
what order are the v1-v6 leads placed?
what is the conduction of the heart?
-Bundle of HIS
-R+L Bundle Branch
what is the blood flow of the heart?
-Inferior/superior vena cava
what is the measurement for amplitude adjusted standardization?
how wide is each square on EKG paper?
what does the septum do?
divides heart into two sides
what do the atria do?
upper chambers receive blood from body & lungs