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Flashcards in Chapter 10 IDs Deck (41):
1

Renaissance

Transitional period from medieval to modern times

2

Humanism

The study of Latin and Greek classics and of the Church Fathers both for their own sake and to promote a rebirth of ancient norms and values.
-Petrarch was the "father of humanism"

3

Studia Humanitas

-A liberal arts program of embracing grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy
-Celebrated dignity of humankind and prepared people for life of virtuous action

4

Virtu

The ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of one's country

5

Civic Humanism

Education should promote individual virtue and public service

6

Petrarch

-The "father of humanism"
-Left legal profession to pursue letters and poetry
-Celebrated ancient Rome by writing letters to dead Romans

7

Baldassare Castiglione

Said the rediscovered knowledge of the past was a model and a challenge to the present

8

Leonardo Bruni

First to give the name humanity to the learning that resulted from scholarly pursuits

9

Lorenzo Valla

-In his Elegances of the Latin Language, he reveals the explosive character of the new learning
-Said Donation by Constantine, which gave land to the church, was a fake because it used words that were not used in Constantine's times

10

Florentine Platonic Academy

-Revival of Greek studies in Florence
-After fall of Constantinople to Turks, many Greek scholars fled to Florence
-Evolved under Cosimo de Medici, Marsilio Ficino, and Pico Della Mirandola

11

Pico Della Mirandola

-One of the supervisors of the Florentine Acadamy
-Influenced by Plato
-Wrote Oration as an introduction to 900 theses intended to serve as a basis for a public debate on all of the important topics in life

12

Vernacular

The language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region

13

Dante Alighieri

-Near-contemporary of Petrarch
-Was cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature

14

Giovanni Boccaccio

-Pioneer of humanist studies
-Assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology

15

Johann Gutenberg

Invented printing press with movable type

16

Desiderius Erasmus

-Most famous humanist
-Gained fame as an educated and religious reformer through printed works
-Colloquia were short printed works that taught how to speak and live well
-Adages were ancient and contemporary proverbs he collected
-Wanted to unite classical ideas of humanity and civic virtue with Christian ideals of love and respect for God
-Expected more from people than what all of the ages theologians believed they could be

17

Sir Thomas More

-Best known English humanist
-Executed for not recognizing Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn

18

Themes and Techniques of Renaissance Art

-Use of shading to enhance naturalness (chiaroscuro)
-Adjustment of size of figures to create linear perspective

19

Giotto

-Father of Renaissance painting
-Painted a more natural world

20

Brunelleschi

-Italian designer
-Considered first modern engineer

21

Donatello

-Sculptor
-Portrayed world around himself literally and naturally

22

Botticelli

-Painter of Early Renaissance
-Went to Florentine school under Lorenzo de Medici
-Known for Birth of Aphrodite

23

Christine de Pisan

-Expert in classical, French, and Italian literature
-Wrote poetry to support herself

24

Leonardo da Vinci

-Advised princes and French King Francis I on engineering
-Advocated for scientific experiment, self-taught botanist
-Greatest skill was conveying inner moods through facial expressions

25

Raphael

Painted The School of Athens in the Vatican
-Depicts philosophers and scientists

26

Michelangelo

-Created 18ft statue of David
-Painted Sistine Chapel
-Used mannerism to show more complex deep, personal changes

27

Mannerism

-Used by Michelangelo
-Shows individual perceptions and feelings of artist

28

Themes and Techniques of Northern Renaissance Art

-Advanced oil painting
-Panel painting
-Wood carvings
-Detailed
-More engravings and etches
-Religious

29

Albrecht Durer

-Painted most famous self-portrait of European Renaissance and Reformation by showing his face on a portrayal of Christ
-Known for his woodcuts
-Painted lost of rabbit images

30

Pieter Breughel

-Known for his landscapes and peasant scenes
-Northern Renaissance

31

Niccolo Machiavelli

-Wanted to end internal feuding so Italy could unite and drive out foreign armies
-Hoped to see a strong ruler from Medici family

32

Cosimo de Medici

-Controlled Florence from behind the scenes
-Natural statesman
-Influenced elections
-Connections with Signoria (Council of Florence)

33

Lorenzo de Medici

-Ruled Florence in a totalitarian fashion
-Determined ruler after assassination of his brother by Pazzi family

34

Pope Julius II

-Suppressed Borgias and placed Romagna under papal jurisdiction
-Raised Renaissance papacy to height of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue
-Drove Venetians out of Romagna in 1509
-Ferdinand of Aragon, Venice, and himself created the 2nd Holy League later joined by Maximillian I and the Swiss
--Had France in full retreat where they were defeated by the Swiss in Novara

35

Pope Leo X

-From the Medici family
-Captured the papacy

36

Concordat of Bologna

Gave French King control over French clergy in recognition of pope's superiority over church body

37

Causes and Effects of War of Roses

-Causes: Forced deposition of Richard II
-Effects: Tudor family rose to power and dominated England throughout the 16th century

38

Francisco Pizarro

-Conquered Inca people
-Killed their leader Atahualpa and hundreds of his followers

39

Hernan Cortes

-Conquered Aztecs
-Seized Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City)

40

Bartolome de las Casas

-One of most outspoken clerical critic of Spanish conquerors
-Result of his criticism was 'Black Legend' that said all Spanish treatment of the natives was unprincipled and inhumane

41

Ferdinand Magellan

Made it all the way around South America and across the Pacific to the Philippines, his crew then made it back to Spain and was first to circumnavigate the globe