Chapter 10-muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10-muscles Deck (28)
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Origin

Fixed end. Stationary, proximal end of muscle

1

Head

Each origin is a head

2

Insertion

Mobile end. Distal end of muscle attached to the bone undergoing most movement

3

Belly

Muscle between origin and insertion

4

Aponeuroses

Tendons that are long and cable like; broad and sheet like

5

Agonist

A muscle that accomplishes movement. Flexion

6

Antagonist

Opposite to agonist. Relaxes and stretches

7

Synergist

Group of muscles that work together to perform movement

8

Prime mover

Amount a group of synergist, one muscle plays major role in accomplishing movement

9

Fixators

Muscles that hold one bone in place while more distal bone is moved

10

Circular muscles

Orbicularis Otis and orbicularis oculi arrange a circle around an opening. Iris of eye, mouth

11

Convergent muscles

Triangular in shape. Broadly distributed Fascicles that come together at one tendon. Pectoralis major and minor

12

Parallel muscles

Fascicles lie parallel to one another and long axis of the muscle. Trapezius, rhomboideus, rectus abdominis

13

Pennate muscle

Fascicles originate from a tendon that runs the length of the entire muscle. Three patterns.

14

Patterns of pennate muscle

Unipennate, bipennate, multipennate

15

Unipennate

Fascicles on only one side of tendon palmar interosseus. Semi membranous.

16

Bipennate

Fascicles on both sides of tendon. Rectus femoris

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Multipennate

Fascicles arranged at many places around central tendon. Spread out at angles to many smaller tendons. Deltoid

18

Fusiform

Fascicles lie parallel to long axis of muscle. Belly of muscle is larger in diameter than ends. Biceps brachii (2 heads) triceps brachii (3 heads)

19

What geometric shapes can a muscle have?

Triangular, quadrate or rectangular, tres (round) rhombus

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Criteria for naming muscles

Location, size, shape, orientation of fasciculi, origin and insertion, number of heads, function.

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Lever

Rigid shaft capable of turning a hinge or pivot point (bone)

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Fulcrum

Hinge or pivot point. (Joint)

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Weight

Resistance.

24

Pull

Force

25

Class I lever system

Pull----fulcrum----weight

Seesaw

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Class II lever system

Pull---- weight in fulcrum

Wheelbarrow

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Class III lever system

Fulcrum----pull----weight

Hand on top of shovel is fulcrum
Hand closest to shovel head is pull
Shovel head is weight