Chapter 10- Rogers: Person-Centered Theory Flashcards Preview

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This theorist's theory underwent several change the name, from nondirective, client centered, person centered, student centered, group centered. The theory follows an if-then framework

Carl Rogers' person-centered theory


Rogers person-centered theory rests on two basic assumptions:

The formative tendency and the actualizing tendency


According to Rogers, this tendency states that all matter, both organic and inorganic, tends to evolve from simpler to more complex forms. Human consciousness evolves from a primitive unconsciousness to a highly organized awareness.

Formative tendency


According to Rogers, this tendency suggests that all living things, including humans, tend to move toward completion, or fulfillment of potentials.

Actualizing tendency. For people to become actualized, certain conditions must be present and for person this includes a relationship with another person who is genuine, or congruent, and who demonstrates complete acceptance and empathy for that person.


According to Rogers, this need is similar to lower steps on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It includes such basic needs as food, air, and safety and also the tendency to resist change and to seek the status quo

The need for maintenance


According to Rogers, this is the need to become more, to develop, and to achieve growth

The need for enhancement


According to Rogers, this is a subsystem of the actualization tendency and refers to the tendency to actualize a self as perceived in awareness



According to Rogers, the self has two subsystems:

The self-concept and the ideal self


According to Rogers, this self subsystem includes all those aspects of one's identity that are perceived in awareness

The self-concept


According to Rogers, this self subsystem is defined as one's view of self as one wishes to be

The ideal self


According to Rogers, a wide gap between the ideal self and the self-concept indicates:

Incongruence and various levels of psychopathology


According to Rogers, this is the symbolic representation of some portion of our experience. He was the term synonymously with both consciousness and symbolization



Rogers saw people's having experiences on three levels of awareness:

1) those that are experienced below the threshold of awareness and are either ignored or denied
2) those that are distorted or reshaped to fit into an existing self-concept
3) those that are consistent with the self-concept and thus are accurately symbolized and freely admitted to the self-structure


According to Rogers, many people have difficulty excepting genuine compliments and positive feedback, even when deserved. Compliments may be distorted because the person just stressed to give her, or they may be denied because the recipient does not feel deserving of them. This is called:

Denial of positive experiences


According to Rogers, this is the need to be loved, like, or excepted by another person:

The need for positive regard


According to Rogers, this is the experience of prizing are valuing oneself. Receiving positive regard from others is necessary for this, but once established it becomes independent of the the continual need to be loved

Positive self regard


According to Rogers, this is when a person feels that they are loved and accepted only when and if they meet the conditions set by others

Conditions of worth


According to Rogers, our perceptions of other people's view of us

External evaluations


According to Rogers, when we fail to recognize our organismic experiences as self experiences, when we do not accurately symbolize organismic experiences into awareness because they appear to be inconsistent with our emerging self-concept, this is called:

Incongruence. Incongruence between our self-concept and organismic experiences is the source of psychological disorders. Conditions of worth that we received during early childhood lead to a somewhat false self concept based on distortions and denials.


According to Rogers, people are
________ when they are unaware of the discrepancy between their organismic self and their significant experience



According to Rogers, ______ exists whenever the person becomes dimly aware of the discrepancy between organismic experience and self-concept. ________ is experienced whenever the person becomes more clearly aware of this incongruence.

Anxiety, threat


According to Rogers, this is the protection of the self-concept against anxiety and threat by the denial or distortion of experiences inconsistent with it



According to Rogers, this is when we misinterpret an experience in order to fit it into some aspect of our self-concept



According to Rogers, this is when we refused to perceive and experience in awareness, or at least we keep some aspect of it from reaching symbolization



Which person is best known as the founder of client centered therapy and also developed an important theory of personality that underscores his approach to therapy. He was an accomplished therapist but only a reluctant theorist.

Carl Rogers


According to Rogers, when the incongruence between peoples perceived self and their organismic experience is either too obvious or occurs too suddenly to be denied or distorted, their behavior becomes:

Disorganized. With this organization, people sometimes behave consistently with their organismic experience, and sometimes in accordance with their shattered self-concept


According to Rogers, for client-centered psychotherapy to be effective, six conditions are necessary:

1) an anxious or vulnerable client
2) must come into contact with a therapist
3) The therapist must be congruent
4) The therapist must demonstrate unconditional positive regard
5) and listen with empathy to the client
6) and the patient must perceive the congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy

If these conditions are present, then the process of therapy will take place, and certain predictable outcomes will result


Rogers believe that three of the six conditions are crucial to client centered therapy, he called them of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic growth:

Congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathic listening


According to Rogers, this is the first necessary and sufficient condition for therapeutic change and exists when a person's organismic experiences are matched by an awareness of them and by an ability and willingness to openly express these feelings. It means to be real or genuine, to be whole or integrated, to be what one truly is

Congruence. Congruence is a relatively stable characteristic of the therapist


When the need to be liked, priced, or excepted by another person exists without any conditions or qualifications, it is called:

Unconditional positive regard. Means that therapists except and prize their clients without any restrictions or reservations and without regard to the clients' behavior