Flashcards in Chapter 10- Section 1&2 Quiz Deck (18):
Devotion to one's national group. This was an important force in Europe during the 1800s: culture/ history/ religion/ language/ territory
Believed that ethnic groups should not be taken into consideration when drawing national boundaries.
Giuseppe Mazzini (the heart), Giuseppe Garibaldi (the sword), and Camillo di Cavour (the brain)
All wanted a unification of Italy.
A group formed to attract tens of thousands of Italians to the cause of unification.
Garibaldi ("The Sword")
Led a group known as the "Red Shirts". By offering the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to Victor Emmanuel, king of Sardinia (and later first king of Italy), Garibaldi demonstrated that he was not committed to obtain political power for himself.
Although Italy was politically united in the late 1800s, the Catholic Church did not recognize the government and prohibited Catholics from voting.
The new and official capital city of unified Italy.
Italy's economy post-unification was marked by...
Widespread poverty and unemployment which led to violence and emigration.
Revolted in 1848 because they wanted reforms that would promote individual rights.
Frederick Wilhelm IV
After promising a constitution and reforms he went back on many of them and did nothing to promote democracy.
A customs union between German states which removed tariffs and other trade restrictions. It promoted business relations as well as a network of railroads to be built. This ultimately created an economic alliance between some German states.
Otto Von Bismarck
A German conservative who did not support the revolutions that swept through Europe in the mid-1800s. He used the phrase "blood and iron" to describe his plan to use the Prussian military as a force for German unification (blood was like wars and iron was military buildup). He also stressed a philosophy about the government that was practical rather than idealistic called realpolitik.
Bismarck's first War
A disagreement over Schleswig and Holstein gave Prussia a way to start a war with Denmark.
A conflict that destroyed the German-Confederation, allowing Bismarck to establish a path toward a unified Germany.
France held the areas of Alsace and Loraine which the Southern German States felt were more German than French. The Northern German states allied with the Southern German states defeated France, gained the territory, and completed the unification of Germany.
Declared first Kaiser of the German Empire.
A system of government in which the power is shared between state and national governments.