Flashcards in Chapter 10- Section 3&4 Quiz Deck (17):
The Austrian hold in central Europe became Austria-Hungary. This was a direct result of real threats of independence coming from the Hungarian ethnic group called the Magyars. The Compromise of 1867 created a Dual Monarchy in which Austria and Hungary became two separate, equal states under one ruler. Nationalism remained a problem for the Dual Monarchy as ethnic minorities continued to seek self-government.
Franz Joseph I
Ruler of the Dual Monarchy (Austria- Hungary). Despite abolishing the liberal reforms of 1848, Franz Joseph I was never able to fully eliminate the nationalistic feelings of the ethnic minorities that made up his kingdom. The revolutions in France, Italy, and in the German states had made too big a mark to be ignored.
The Crimean War
Began because of a dispute over the Holy Land. In addition, Russia had desires of taking control of Constantinople because of it would provide Russia with access to the Mediterranean Sea. The war ended in a stalemate ( a tie) leaving 500,000 dead.
A British nurse who worked to save lives threatened by disease and crowded, filthy conditions in field hospitals during the Crimean War.(She is From Great Britain)
Not immune to nationalistic uprisings, the Ottoman Empire's problems began in 1830 when Greece gained its independence.
Fought for Ottoman held territory in and around the Mediterranean. Russia was the primary Ottoman enemy, as the Russians were always looking for a port on the Mediterranean Sea. These wars cost The Ottomans nearly all their European land.
The Young Turks
An Ottoman nationalistic group who fought the absolute power of the Sultan in 1908.
A government by one ruler (Autocrat ) with unlimited power.
Agricultural (main economy of Russia) workers who were considered part of the land on which they work.
The Decembrist Revolt
A revolutionary group which included many military officers who refused to declare allegiance to the new czar, Nicholas I.
Czar Alexander II
Began a program of reforms in Russia. The most important one came too late as he was assassinated the day he freed the serfs.
Anti-Semitic rioters attacked and killed innocent Jews in waves of violent attacks in Russia.
In the 1890s, Russia began building the railroad to link western Russia with Siberia.
Japanese and Russian expansions collided resulting in an embarrassing defeat for Russia. This loss emboldened revolutionary movements in Russia for two decades. This war added to the unrest in Russia.
Followers of Karl Marx wanted to change Russia from an autocracy to a socialist republic (similar to communism) which is a society in which there would be no private property and the state would collectively own and distribute goods. Vladimir Lenin, a Russian Marxist revolutionary, laid out a plan to overthrow the Czar.
An event where a massive crowd of labor workers were shot down by the Czar's Palace Troops while trying to deliver a petition to their king. This act stirred other Russian sectors to rise up against the Czar and led to the Revolution of 1905.