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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Basic Concepts Deck (22)
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1

Definition of a hydrocarbon?

A compound containing carbon and hydrogen ONLY

2

Functional group?

The part of the organic molecule that is largely responsible for the molecules chemical properties

3

Homologous series

A family of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties whose successive members differ by the addition of a CH2 group

4

Homolytic fission?

The breaking of a covalent bond with each bonded atom taking one of the shared pair of e from the bond.

5

What is the molecular and general formula of an alcohol?

Molecular ; CnH2n+2O
General ; CnH2n+1OH

6

What is a structural isomer?

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula

7

Define homolytic fission

When a covalent bond is broken,each one of the bonded atoms takes one of the shared pair of electrons from the bond, forms two highly reactive free radicals each with an unpaired electron represented by a dot.

8

A radical/radicals is formed in homolytic fission- what is a radical?

An atom or groups of atoms with an unpaired electron

9

Define heterolytic fission

When a covalent bond breaks, one of the bonded atoms take both of the electrons , forming a positively charged cation and a negatively charged anion.

10

What do curly arrows represent?

Movement of electron pairs when bonds are being broken or made

11

What happens in an addition reaction?

Two reactants join together to form one product

12

What happens in a substitution reaction?

An atom or group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms

13

define general formula

simplest algebraic formula for a homologous series

14

displayed formula

a formula which shows the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them

15

3 hydrocarbon types

aliphatic
alicyclic
aromatic

16

functional group

the group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound

17

chain isomers

molecules with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement f the carbon chain

18

structural isomers

compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula.

19

stereoisomers

compounds with the same structural formula but different arrangement of atoms in space.

20

how does E/Z isomerism arise?

arises because rotation around the double bond is restricted and the groups attached to each Carbon atom are therefore fixed relative to each other, because of the rigidity of the position of the pie bonds density above and below the pane of the sigma bond.

21

what are the two conditions needed to satisfy E/Z isomerism?

- a C-c double bond
- different groups attached to each carbon atom of the double bond.

22

when can the cahn-ingold-prelog nomenclature rules be used?

cis-trans system of naming can only be used when each carbon atom of the double bond is attached to a single H atom.