Chapter 11 - Disorders Involving Gender and Sexuality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Disorders Involving Gender and Sexuality Deck (37):
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gender identity

One's psychological sense of being female or being male

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gender identity disorder (GID)

A type of psychological disorder characterized by conflict between one's anatomic sex and one's gender identity.

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sexual dysfunctions

Persistent or recurrent problems with sexual interest, arousal, or response.

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hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Persistent or recurrent lack of sexual interest or sexual fantasies.

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sexual aversion disorder

A type of sexual dysfuntion characterized by aversion to and avoidance of genital sexual contact.

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female sexual arousal disorder

A type of sexual dysfunction in women involving difficulty becoming sexually aroused ora lack of sexual excitement or pleasure during sexual activity.

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male erectile disorder

A sexual dysfunction in males characterized by difficulty in achieving or maintaining erection during sexual activity.

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female orgaxmic disorder

A type of sexual dysfunction involving persistent difficulty achieving orgasm despite adequate stimulation.

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male orgasmic disorder

Persistent or recurrent delay in acheiving orgasm or inability to achieve orgasm despite a normal level of sexual interest and arousal.

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premature ejaculation

A type of sexual dysfunction involving a pattern of unwanted rapid ejactuation during sexual activity.

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dyspareunia

Persistent or recurrent pain experienced during or following sexual intercourse.

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vaginismus

The involuntary spasm of the muscles surrounding thevagina when vaginal penetration is attempted, making sexua intercourse difficult or impossible.

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paraphilias

Sexual deviations or types of sexual disorders in which one experiences recurrent sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involvingt nonhuman objects (such as articles of clothing), inappropriate or nonconsenting partners (e.g., children), or situations producing humiliation or pain to oneself or one's partner.

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exhibitionism

A type of paraphilia almost exclusively occuring in males (?), in which  the individual experiences persistent and recurrent sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involving the exposure of his genitals to a stranger and either has acted on these urges or feels strongly distressed by them.

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fetishism

A type of paraphilia in which a person uses an inanimate object as a focus of sexual interest and as a source of arousal.

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transvestic fetishism

A type of paraphilia in heterosexual males who experience sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involving dressing in femal clothing.  Also termed transvestism.

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voyeurism

A type of paraphilia involving sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies focused on acts of watching unsuspecting others who are naked, in the act of undressing, or engaging in sexual activity.

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frotteurism

A type of paraphilia involving sexual urges or sexually arousing fantasies about bumping and rubbing against nonconsenting persons for sexual gratification.

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pedophilia

A type of paraphilia involving sexual attraction to children.

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sexual masochism

A type of paraphilia characterized by sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies about receiving humiliation or pain.

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hypoxyphilia

A paraphilia in which a person seeks sexual gratification by being deprived of oxygen by means of a noose, plastic bag, chemical, or pressure on the chest.

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sexual sadism

A type of paraphilia or sexual deviation characterized by recurrent sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies about inflicting humiliation or physical pain on sex partners.

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sadomasochism

Sexual activities between partners involving the attainment of gratification by means of inflicting and receiving pain and humiliation.

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rape

Forced sexual intercourse with a nonconsenting person. Note that the legal definition of rape varies from state to state.

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What is gender identity disorder?

People with GID find their anatomic gender to be a source of persistent and intense distress.  People with the disorder may seek to change their sex organs to resemble those of the other sex, and many undergo hormone treatments and/or surgery to achieve this end.

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How does GID differ from homosexuality?

In GID, as defined in the DSM system, there is a mismatch between one's psychological sense of being male or femal and one's anatomic sex.  Sexual orientation refers to the direction of one's sexual attraction—toward members of one's own sex or the opposite sex.  Unlike people with GID, the great majority of people with a gay male or lesbian sexual orientation have a gender identity that is consistent with their anatomic sex.

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What are sexual dysfunctions?

Sexual dysfunctions involve persistent or recurrent patterns of lack of sexual desire, problems in becoming sexually aroused, and/or problems in reaching orgasm.

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What are the major types of sexual dysfunctions?

Sexual dysfunctions include sexual desire disorders (hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder), sexual arousal disorders (female sexual arousal disorder and male erectile disorder), orgasm disorders (female and male orgasmic disorders and premature ejaculation), and sexual pain disorders (dyspareunia and vaginismus).

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What are the causes of sexual dysfunctions?

Sexual dysfunctions can stem from biological factors (such as fatigue, disease, the effects of aging, or the effects of alcohol and other drugs), psychological factors (such as performance anxiety, lack of sexual skills, disruptive cognitions, relationship problems), and sociocultural factors (such as sexually restrictive cultural learning).

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What is sex therapy?

Sex therapy is a cognitive-behavioural approach that helps people overcome sexual dysfunctions by enhancing self-efficacy expectancies, teaching sexual skills, improving communication, and reducing performance anxiety.

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What biologically based treatments are available to help treat sexual dysfunctions?

These include hormone treatments, penile implants, and most commonly, the use of drugs to facilitate blood flow to the genital region (Viagra and its cousins) or delay ejactualtion (SSRIs).

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What are paraphilias?

Paraphilias are sexual deviations involving patterns of arousal to stimuli such as nonhuman objects (e.g., shoes or clothes), humiliation or the experience of pain in oneself or one's partner, or children.

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What are the major types of paraphilias?

Paraphilias include exhibitionism, fetishism, transvestic fetishism, voyeurism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, and sexual sadism.  Althought some paraphilias are essentially harmless (such as fetishism), others, such as pedophilia and sexual sadism, often harm non-consenting victims.

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What are the causes of paraphilias?

Psychoanalysts see many paraphilias as defenses against castration anxiety ('cause that's a real thing...).  Learning theorists attribute paraphilias to early learning experiences.  Biological factors may also be implicated, such as higher-than-normal sex drives in people with paraphilias.

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What are the effects of rape?

Many survivors of rape suffer physical and/or psychological trauma, such as PTSD.  They have trouble sleeping, cry frequently, may become sullen and mistrustful, and may blame themselves (what about possible connections to future promiscuity?).  There may be injuries to the genital organs and other parts of the bdy, and the victim may be infected with sexually transmited diseases.

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What are the major types of rape?

The main types of rape include stranger rape, acquaintance rape, date rape, marital rape, and male rape.

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What motivates rape?

Men rape women as a way of dominating them and as a way of coercing them into sexual activity.  Cultural myths about rape have the effects of blaming the victim and creating a climate that legitimatizes rape.  For some rapists, sexual arousal and violence become fused together.