Flashcards in Chapter 11 How Cells Obtain Energy Deck (23):
What is metabolism?
the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell.
What is catabolism?
Includes all reactions that breakdown macromolecules.
This is energetically favorable because stored energy is released last he bonds between macromolecules are broken down.
What is anabolism?
Includes all reaction that synthesize synthesize macromolecules. This energetically unfavorable because energy is needed to to form bonds.
What are metabolic pathways?
They are a series of reactions where the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next
What are metabolites?
The intermediate products formed in the process of creating an end metabolic product.
What is cellular respiration?
The process of getting useful energy from the bonds of sugar molecules.
How is ATP produced?
The breakdown of sugar, which is exergonic is coupled with the creation of ATP. And then ATP is used in all sorts of cellular processes
What are the reactants and products of cellular respiration?
In the process a phosphate group is bound to an ADP to form ATP
What are the three stages of catabolism?
3.) Oxidative phosphorylation
What is digestion?
The breaking down of macromolecules into small monodic subunits
What is glycolysis?
The breakdown of sugar molecules into pyruvate. This occurs in the cytosol. The creation of pyruvate generate ATP and NADH.
Pyruvate is eventually turned into CO2 and acetyl COA ( an activated carrier).
What is an activated carrier?
A molecule that can carry electrons
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
Occurs in the mitochondria.
Produces CO2, NADH, ATP and citrate (used in the citric acid cycle).
The process consumes O2
What are the two types of respiration?
If O is not available, respiration is anaerobic. If respiration is available, respiration is aerobic.
Aerobic respiration has much higher energy yields
What are obligate aerobes?
Has absolute requirement for O
What are obligate anaerobes?
Cannot use O, might actually make them sick.
What are facultative organisms?
Can function aerobic or anaerobically.
When does a cell decides if it will aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
At the pyruvate stage. If O is present Oxidative decarboxylation will occur. If O is not present fermentation will occur.
Where does glycolysis occur? What is it?
In the cytosol. The process of turning sugar into pyruvate.
What are the inputs and the gross results of glycolysis?
Glucose + 2 NAD+ +ADP +2 phosphate groups= 2 pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ATP
What is the net result of glycolysis?
2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvates
Name enzymes for glycolysis.
Dyhydrogenase: oxidizes the molecule by removing and H+
Kinase: Adds a phosphate group to the molecule
Isomerase: rearranges bonds within the molecule
Mutase: shifts a chemical group from one position to another