Flashcards in Chapter 11- Section 3&4 Quiz Deck (21)
In the 1800s...
In the 1800s, after nations passed laws abolishing the slave trade, Europeans tapped Africa's natural resources.
Scramble for Africa
Prompted by economic interests, political competition between powers, and cultural motives such as Europeans' belief in their own superiority.
Certain nations, cultures, or races are more fit than others. Those that dominate must "teach" those they can conquer how to "behave". (Cecil Rhodes wrote about social Darwinism).
Established to create order and prevent conflicts between European nations during the "scramble for Africa". Countries divided up Africa, ignoring the various ethnic groups, much like the Congress of Vienna.
Conditions for European colonization of Africa
Science- the discovery of a drug that prevented malaria from impacting their population.
Weapons- the development of the machine gun (automatic weapons) gave them a distinct advantage over forces that even though outnumbered Europeans, had spears and bows and arrows.
The Boer War
The clash between the Dutch settlers known as the Boer Trekkers versus British expansion out of Southern Africa. Many atrocities took place and the Dutch eventually came under British rule, creating the self-governing Union of South Africa.
Belgian king who claimed the Congo Free State as his own.
The British occupied Egypt in 1882 to maintain access to the canal if and when the Egyptian government appeared unstable. This was to ensure Britain's access to their shortcut between the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
An African nation who under the rulers Shaka and Cetshwayo, resisted colonization for 50 years, but the British annexed their kingdom as a colony in 1879.
The only African nation to retain its independence as a result of their ability to match firepower. This was due to Emperor Menelik II ability to industrialize in order to prevent foreign domination. Menelik II forces defeated Italians at the Battle of Adwa.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionaries who gathered support from the lowest classes and forced Porfirio Diaz to resign as president.
Mexican army chief who took power and imprisoned the elected president of Mexico.
Founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in 1895.
Began when the USS Maine exploded in Havana's harbor. Assumed that Spain destroyed the battleship the US declared war on Spain. Within 3 months Spain was dealt a decisive blow by the Americans.
Spanish-American War Victory Conditions
- US received Puerto Rico and Guam
- US purchased the Philippines for 20 million dollars
- Platt Amendment- allowed the US to intervene in Cuba, to approve foreign treaties, and to lease land at Guantanamo Bay for a Naval Base.
Led Filipino rebels against Spanish colonialism.
Territory seized by Panamanian rebels supported by the US, construction lasted ten years. The canal enabled the US to have access to both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans without rounding Cape Horn or the need to have two navies.
US will use military force to prevent Europeans from attacking South American countries that owed money. The US would make sure that those countries that owed money to Europe would make good on their loans.
Compare and Contrast the Suez Canal and Panama Canal
Both canals would allow access to shortcuts in either oceans or seas making water travel quicker.
The Suez Canal gave Britain access to their shortcut between the Mediterranean and Red Sea
The British occupied Egypt in 1882 to maintain access to the canal if and when the Egyptian government appeared unstable.
The Panama Canal gave the U.S. access to both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans without rounding Cape Horn or needing two navies.
The Panama Canal was territory seized by Panamanian rebels supported by the US
Compare and contrast Ethiopians and Zulus
Both African nations had leaders who helped maintain their independence for as long as possible and both nations wanted to retain their independence and resisted colonization.
The Zulu kingdom was eventually annexed as a colony in 1879 by the British after resisting colonization for 50 years
Ethiopia is the only African nation to retain its independence as a result of their ability to match firepower due to Emperor Menelik II ability to industrialize in order to prevent foreign domination.