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Flashcards in chapter 11 - the dark ages Deck (69):
1

“catholic” original meaning

universal church

2

Irenaeus

declared that every church must agree with the roman church

3

Capital of the developing catholic church

Rome

4

where is the actual authority found beyond the time of the apostles?

scripture

5

sacraments

means of grace

6

what did the council of toulouse forbid?

possessing a copy of the Bible

7

who were the franks and where did they settle?

the franks were a germanic tribe that settled in Gaul

8

how did charles martel gain his nickname?

stopped the muslims from invading the rest of europe past spain

9

papal states

the land that peppin the short gifted to the pope

10

excommunication

the power popes gave themselves that helped them to control political leaders

11

what is the meaning of charlemagne?

charles the great

12

why was the treaty of verdin important?

it solved the dispute between charlemagne’s grandsons over the boundaries in europe which basically remain today

13

Frederick I

the first king to use the name Holy Roman Empire for his lands

14

what religion were the moors who invaded spain?

muslims

15

why is the term “dark ages” frowned upon today?

some feel it places a moral judgement on the time period

16

bishops (deacons)

said in scripture to be overseers for the local church, there were originally many for most churches but eventually there was just one, became like a governor for the people

17

apostolic succession was the idea that:

- Christ had appointed apostles as successors
-apostles appointed bishops as their successors
-the authority of the apostles was passed to the bishops

18

the authority of the apostles

the truth they wrote in the new testament

19

the petrine theory states that:

-christ founded the church upon peter + made him visible head of the church
-peter appointed the bishop of rome as his successor with his same authority

20

pope leo I

helped emperor valentinian pursuade attila the hun and the vandals not to attack rome in 452 and 455

21

pope Gelasius I

enunciated the doctrine of the two swords which said that he pope had authority over all human rulers in matters relating to God

22

pope Gregory I

became one of the many Popes after the fall of the western roman empire to fill the power vacuum left in Rome.

23

the church under pope Gregory I

-seemed to inherit the authority of the former roman empire
-territories were divided into dioceses and parishes
-pope took the title of pontifex maximus

24

pope Boniface VIII

proclaimed that for every creature to be subject to the roman pope is all together necessary for salvation

25

salvation was thought to be dependent on:

sacraments: (baptism, communion)

26

transubstantiation

the belief that wine+ bread actually turned into the blood/body of christ

27

confession

had to go to the priest to confess your sins

28

relics

said that possessing parts of the cross, or a thorn from Jesus’ crown would bring favor with God

29

penance

paying a penalty for your sin

30

picture of christ

became one of wrath. in order to soften his wrath one would pray to his mother (virgin mary)

31

treasury of merits

it was said that a good person could deposit their excess merits and they could be distributed to sinners by the church for a fee

32

the latin vulgate

the only available translation of scripture in the middle ages, most people could not read latin

33

translation of the bible

-12th century , bible was translated to the language of the people
-14th century, John wycliffe translates it to english

34

john wycliffe

translated the bible to english, fiercely opposed the official church, was eventually burned at the stake

35

monasticism

gave stability to society in the absence of the roman empire

36

monks/ nuns

monks went to monasteries, nuns went to clusters, both took vows of separation

37

hermits

fled basic society for the monastery but took no vows

38

celibacy

vow not to get married

39

monastery

monks congregated here

40

convents

congregation for nuns

41

orders

different sects of monasteries

42

st. benedict

(monk from italy) most european monks followed his rule

43

two main orders of friars

-franciscans
-dominicans

44


clovis

a successful military leader and political figure who became a frankish tribal king and united the independent kingdoms of Gaul into a new roman empire.

45

Merovingians

named after Merovee , Clovis’ grandfather and father. ruled until 751

46

mayor of the palace

chief royal official to whom the ruling of the empire was left

47

charles martel

the most significant mayor of the palace, nicknamed “charles the hammer” because he stopped the muslims from invading europe,

48

peppin the short

charles martel’s son, said that since he was doing the job of the kind he might as well be the king, thus beginning the carolingian line of kings named after his father charles

49

the popes ulterior motives in backing peppin

the papacy needed protection against the lombards

50

the lombards

germanic people who occupied northern italy, defeated by the franks who gave their land to the pope

51

charlemagne

peppin son, considers the father of europe, greatest king of the dark ages, defended papal states from lombards, fought to keep the muslims at bay, conquered the pagan saxons, fought the Avars and asiatic tribes in danube valley

52

christmas day 800

pope leo III crowned charlemagne charles augustus, emporer of the romans

53

charlemagne’s accomplishments

1. efficient government-established accountability against corruption
2. prioritizing education-required monasteries to have schools
3. promotes the education of clergy and preserved manuscripts of the Bible and others
4. new style of writing - carolingian minuscule (basis for roman typeface)

54

Louis the Pias

charlemagne’s son

55

the holy roman empire

a period where rulers in germany allied themselves with popes attempting to gain back the glory, power and wealth of the roman empire

56

duchies

what the lands of germany we’re divided into when the carolingians collapsed

57

Henry the fowler

duke of saxony elected in 919 to become king, beginning the saxon line of kings.

58

Otto the great

son of Henry the fowler, invaded lombardy and controlled northern italy while protecting central italy for the church, crowned by the pope in 962 as emperor of the romans

59

height of papal power

(1054-1305) for 250 years, church was the single most powerful institution in western europe

60

investiture controversy

pope Gregory VII exerted pwr over Henry IV by saying only church could appoint church officials, henry said Greg wasn’t pope, greg excommunicated henry, henry begged for forgiveness outside of the castle of canoes for 3 days

61

Pope Innocent

declared an interdict against king John of England, sponsored the fourth crusade, doctrine of transubstantion was formed, instituted the office of the inquisition

62

nationalism

brought back the idea that the king is the emporer of his own domain

63

the babylonian captivity

king philip had the pope arrested in a power struggle, had frances arch bishop appointed as pope, this gave rise to the great schism

64

the great schism

ended up with a third pope

65

the magyars

invaded from asia and ended up in hungary

66

The moors

invaded the holy roman empire from north africa and took much of spain, blocked the trade routes and destroyed europe’s commercial ties with other parts of the world

67

the vikings

germanic barbarians who came south and terrorized ireland, scotland, england, and parts of central europe

68

longboats

vikings boats

69

normandy

some vikings settled here, a portion of french lands