Chapter 11: Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800-1812 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800-1812 Deck (41)
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1

James Monroe

5th president of the US. He was president during the Era of Good Feelings after serving the country as Secretary of State and Secretary of War.

2

William Clark

Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to explore the Louisiana Purchase. He was a soldier.

3

Albert Gallatin

Longest-serving US Secretary of the Treasury. He was a member of the Democratic Republican party and led opposition of many of Alexander Hamilton's treasury proposals. He served as SOT under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. He also studied the languages of Native Americans.

4

Robert R. Livingston

A Democratic-Republican who helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase while serving as the US minister to Francce.

5

Zebulon Pike

Explored the LA Purchase, discovering Pike's Peak in CO, and exploring the area. Later served as a brigadier general in the War of 1812.

6

John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams. His court opinions helped lay the bases for US constitutional law and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system, making decisions that supported the strength of the federal government.

7

Napoleon Bonaparte

A French military and political leader who rose to prominenc during the French Revolution and conquered much of Europe before his defeat in the battle of Waterloo. He negotiated the LA purchase.

8

Aaron Burr

Third VP of the USA,he ran unsuccessfully for president and was elected VP under Jefferson. He was involved in a number of plots such as the succession of New England and to cede the West from the Union. He killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, after which he fled to Europe.

9

William Marbury

One of the midnight judges, and Marbury from Marbury v. Madison. A justice of the peace within DC, he sued Madison for not giving him his official judge papers in a supreme court case that helped define the boundary between the executive and judicial branches of government.

10

Marbury v. Madison

1803: Supreme court course of Marbury (one of the midnight judges who wanted his job) and Madison (the guy that wouldn't give him his judge papers) in which John Marshall established the Supreme court's power of judicial review.

11

James Madison

An instrumental player in the drafting of the constitution and the author of the Bill of Rights. He collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write the Federalist Papers. He later broke away from the Federalist party, instead forming the Democratic-Republican party with Jefferson, under whom he served as the Secretary of State. He was later elected as the 4th President of the USA.

12

Tecumseh

[ (later) Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy which opposed the US during Tecumseh's War and became an ally with Britain in the War of 1812.] He lost against William Henry Harrison (then serving as the governor of the Indiana Territory) in the battle of Tippecanoe and tried to unite the Indians in a pan-indian Confederacy.

13

Tenskwatawa - "The Prophet"

brother of Tecumseh, he was an Indian medicine man who worked to united the Indian tribes against the sale of Indian lands to the US.

14

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Slave that led the only successful slave revolt in history-- Haiti.

15

Samuel Chase

Justice of the supreme court whom Jefferson unsuccessfully tried to impeach; that ordeal established the precedent were presidents typically do not try to remove supreme court justices from their posts.

16

Meriwether Lewis

An American explorer who helped lead the Lewis and Clark expedition under Jefferson. Their objective was to explore the LA Purchase and establish friendly relations with the Native Americans they encountered.

17

Henry Clay

Faterh of the American System- an American economic plan which relied on a strong central bank, good transportation to support inter-state commerce, and protective tariffs to shield American industry. He was a War Hawk leading up to the War of 1812 and served as secretary of state under John Quincy Adams in what the Jeffersonians labeled as a "corrupt Bargain" and created the Whig political party.

18

Sally Hemmings

Thomas Jefferson's slave and mistress. Helped fuel the whisper war against him.

19

James Wilkinson

Collaborator with Aaron Burr in the movement to cede the West from the US, but he betrayed him. He was a spy for the Spanish and was appointed teh Governor of the Louisiana Territory.

20

Sacajawea

Indian woman who helped Lewis and Clark on their expedition. She often worked as a translator.

21

patronage

A system, prevalent during the Gilded Age, in which political parties granted jobs and favors to to party regulars who delivered votes on election day. It was both an essential wellspring of support for both parties and a source of conflict within the Republican party.

22

judicial review

the concept that the Supreme Court has the authority to interpret the constitution; established by Chief Justice John Marshall in the case Marbury v. Madison

23

impeachment

charging a public official with misconduct in office

24

impressmet

Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815. Impressment was a contniual source of conflict between Britain and the US in the early national period.

25

economic coercion

Jefferson's idea of getting countries to do what you want without having to go to war with them by refusing to trade with them. Used before the War of 1812 with Britain and France.

26

Macon's Bill No. 2

Aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, the act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the United States would reinstate the embargo against the non-repealing nation. When Napoleon offered to lift his restrictions on British ports, the United States was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations closer to war.

27

War Hawks (1811-1812)

Democratic-Republican congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, they accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the Frontier.

28

three-fifths clause

Clause that counted each slave as 3/5ths of a person, which helped give the south a leg up in the House.

29

Judiciary Act of 1789

Organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general.

30

Judiciary Act of 1789

Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships, ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary.