Chapter 12 Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Personality Deck (95):
1

Personality

Individual characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, acting

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Sigmund Freud

Theories controversial and autobiographical

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4 Components of Freud

1) Fearful of father, sexually attracted to mother
2)Not empirically tested
3) not accepted by academic psychology
4) popular with culture

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Unconcious

Resovoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, memories

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Human Personality

conflict between pleasure seeking bio impulse and social restraints

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Stage theory

Showing where life energy is focused and where gratification occurs

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Oral stage

Birth-18 months
mouth sucking dependancy

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Anal Stage

18 mnts-3yrs
Anus, control

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Phallic Stage

3-6 years
Penis/moral and sexual identification

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Latency Stage

6-12
period of relaxed calm

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Genital Stage

Post puberty, genitals

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How do stages work for life?

Need to resolve each stage to have a good life

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What are the two most important things in freuds eyes?

Ability to love and to work

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What does unsuccesful resolution of a stage lead to?

Fixation

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Identification

children incorporate parents values in developing superego

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Oedipal Complex

Boy sexual desire towards mother and hate for father

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Electra Complex

female version of Oedipal

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Id

"the it"
If it feels good, do it.
No consequences or possibility thinking

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Pleasure principle

your raw desires found in the id

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Ego

"THE I"
Concious self that balances impulses with actual possibilites

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Reality Principle

Stuck in reality , in the middle

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Superego

"THE ABOVE I"
Pushes people to behave in accordance with society

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Does it result in action?

No it gives you mental image of what you want.

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Iceberg Theory

Concious is above water level. Id completely under water. superego in and out of water. Ego mostly above water

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Free Association

Taps into unconscious by word map free association

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Dreams

-royal road to the unconscious
Freud kept diary of own dreams and analyzed that

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3 other ways to tap unconscious?

1) Belief, habits, symptoms
2) Freudian slips
3) Jokes

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Defense mechanisms

Repression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement, denial

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Repression

Most basic. Banishing all anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, memories(push id impulses away from conscious)

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Regression

Retreating to earlier infantile stage, returning to a state and feeling fixated.
**NOT REAL

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Reaction Formation

Saying and doing the opposite of an unacceptable impulse

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Projection

Instead of admitting of being a certain way, person acuses others of being that way

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Rationalization

construct phony accusations to hide real reason for behavior

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Displacment

Diverting sexual impulses into more acceptable behavior

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Denial

refusing to believe troubling fact

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Why was Freud so popular?

Said all people have sex and aggresion urges
Traveled a lot and publicized work
Very charming

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Freud Wrongs:

Ideas couldn't be scientifically tested and have no empirical support

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Freud Rights

-Unconscious is really important
-People have conficting motives
-childhood exp. important

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Projective Testing

Test with ambiguous stimuli for which there is no correct or obvious answers (still used today)

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Rorschach Inkblot Test

Set of 10 inkblot designed by Herman Rorsschach
Problem: didn't know how to interpret meaning
Used as ice breaker

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Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)

31 Ambiguous pictures containing personal and social interactions and person asked to tell story.

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what was TAT designed for and what is it actually use for?

Designed to tap into unconscious put used to see underlying motivations and goals

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Humanistic Perspective

Focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals

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Three conditions in humanistic perspective:

1) Genuineness
2) Acceptance or Unconditional positive regard
3) Empathy

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Rogers Personality Theory

Need for positive regard is another basic need (raised with conditional positive regard)
**Might breed narcissism

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Trait Perspective

trait is a characteristic pattern of behavior. We can identify traits in individuals

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BIG FIVE: OCEAN

Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, narcissism

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Personality Inventory

assess self reported thoughts, feelings, behavior

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Social Facilitation

Improved performance of tasks in presence of others (depends on task difficulty)
*home advantage only slightly real

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Social Loafing

Tendency for people in group to exert less force when in group working towards common goal

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Diffusion of responsibility

Everyone thinking someone else did something

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Bystandder Effect

More people thing there are others people available, less likely people are to help

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Mere-Exposure Effect

If we have seen it before, we will like it more

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Attributions

explanations for ourselves and others

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Internal

about the person

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External

About the situation

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Fundamental Attribution Error

Overestimate internal factors an underestimate external FOR OTHERS

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Self Serving Bias

Attributing the way that works besst for us
ex: test results

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Just World Hyp

Beleif that people get what they deserve

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Attitues

Belief and feeling that predispose one to respon in particular way to objects, people, eents

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Social Roles

Stanford prison experiment
Showed power of roles via manipulation
People excuse behavior when told by authority to do something

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Depression

sadness, gloom, hopelessness, worthlessness, decreased energy, change in sleep, difficult concentrating, restlesness

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Risk Factors of Depression

Social support, ruminative response style, low self esteem, physical emotional ilness, attention turned inward

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Bipolar Depression

Dramatic mood swimngs,

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PET Scan for bipolar

looks different in different stages

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Schizophrenia

Split mind, most crippling

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Positive Symptoms

Hallucination, delusions, disorganization

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Negative Symptoms

Emotionless, lacking energy, difficulty thinking, diminished social drive

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Biology of Schizophrenia

Dopamine over activity and brain abnormalites
-Low activity in frontal lobe
-shrinkage in some areas
-increased amygdala activity

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Psychotherapy

Emotionally charged confiding between trained therapist and someone who suffers from psycholgical difficulties

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Pschoanalysis

Bring conflicts in consciousness
offer interpretations
The idea that self awareness brings cures

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Humanistic Theory

Treating people like people
Focuses on present and future before past
Looks at conscious thoughts
Promoting growth

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Carl Rogers

Client Centered Therapy

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Behavior Therapy

use for phobia, anxiety, addiction

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Foot in the door

Build up to a request

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Cognitive Dissonance

When things don't go together

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Door in the face

Ask for a lot up front and settle for a little (the amount you actually wanted)

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Lowballing

the idea that a person is more likely to commit to a lower price and they you add it other charges

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Asch study

Showed that obedience is real and under authority people will do what you tell them to

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Scapegoat Theory

The idea of finding someone to blame for something that went wrong

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Three bio causes of aggression

Genetics, nueral, biochemical

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Frustration aggression principle

Frustration sparks anger which sparks aggression

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Aversive Events

Negative stimuli that increase aggression

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Social Script

Culturally provides mental file of how to act

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Self Esteem

Our feelings of self worth

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How can self esteem effect attitude?

People with higher self esteem answer more positively to questions about self

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Self-Efficacy

Our sense of competence on a task

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How can self-efficacy effect self?

If we have self-efficacy we do better at tasks

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self serving bias

readiness to perceive ourselves favorably; see ourselves as better than average

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How does self serving bias work?

People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, and for successes than for failures

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Narcissism

excessive self-love and self-absorption

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If there is so much self-serving bias why are people unhappy?

1) Self directed put-downs
2)We prepare ourselves for possible failure
3)Putting ourselves down helps us learn from mistakes
4)Bad behavior is described as "long ago" while good behavior is more easily remembered and brought forward

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Individualism

the very core of your being, the sense of me, awareness of conviction and power

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Collectivist

Identifying as a group. Have deep attachment to the group

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Social Psychologist

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