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Flashcards in Chapter 13/14 Deck (40)
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1

You have sampled a population of pea plants in which 36% have white flowers. Purple flowers are dominant over white flowers.
Calculate the frequency of the recessive allele.

60%

2

You have sampled a population of pea plants in which 36% have white flowers. Purple flowers are dominant over white flowers.
Calculate the frequency of the dominant allele.

40%

3

You have sampled a population of pea plants in which 36% have white flowers. Purple flowers are dominant over white flowers.
Calculate the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype.

16%

4

You have sampled a population of pea plants in which 36% have white flowers. Purple flowers are dominant over white flowers.
Calculate the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.

48%

5

In a population of 1000 randomly-mating lab mice, 90 are white (recessive). How many (number) are heterozygous.

420 mice are heterozygous

6

Natural selection______.
a. results in evolutionary adaptions.
b. is a very rare phenomenon
c. always leads to the refinement of traits.
d. prepares organisms for future changes in the environment

a. results in evolutionary adaptions.

7

In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was_____.
a. artificial selection
b. natural selection
c. inheritance of acquired characteristics
d. uniformitarianism

b. natural selection

8

Scientists identify the same skeletal elements that make the forelimbs of humans, cats, whales, and bats as a result of common ancestry. This similarity is called...
a. analogy
b. dimorphism
c. homology
d. exaptation

c. homology

9

All of the following are examples of natural selection except....
a. mosquitos that survive after DDT exposure
b. bacteria that are not affected by antibiotics
c. vestigial structures that no longer have a function
d. humans who are resistant to HIV infection

c. vestigial structures that no longer have a function

10

The total collection of alleles in a population at any one time makes up that population's________.
a. genotype
b. gene pool
c. heterozygosity
d. polymorphic pool

b. gene pool

11

Which of the following applies to a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
a. The population is always changing and subject to a high mutation rate.
b. p always equals q
c. the population's gene pool does not remain constant.
d. The population is not evolving

d. The population is not evolving

12

After surviving a bottleneck, a population recovers to the point where it consists of as many individuals as it did prior to the bottleneck. Which statement is most likely to apply this population?
a. The postbottleneck population exhibits less genetic variation than the rebottleneck population.
b. The bottleneck subjected the population to stabilizing selection.
c. The postbottleneck population has a lesser chance of going extinct than the pre bottleneck population.
d. The post bottleneck population exhibits more genetic variation than the pre bottleneck population.

a. The postbottleneck population exhibits less genetic variation than the rebottleneck population.

13

Gene flow reduces.....
a. genetic differences between populations
b. overall population size
c. the number of fertile individuals
d. the number of offspring

a. genetic differences between populations

14

The "Founder Effect" is illustrated by:
a. the adaptations in several grass species in response to high concentration of metals in soil
b. shift from light to dark colored Peppered Moths
c. maintenance of human blood types
d. the appearance of a few North American continental birds in Hawaii

d. the appearance of a few North American continental birds in Hawaii

15

The occurrence of large an small beak sizes among finches in the absence of medium-sized beaks is an example of...
a. directional selection
b. stabilizing selection
c. disruptive selection
d. sexual selection

c. disruptive selection

16

Males peacocks sport a flamboyant and iridescent "train" of tail feathers that can open up in a grand display, female peahens possess a significantly more subdued appearance. Female preferences of males with a grand display is an example of...
a. gene flow
b. sexual selection
c. adaptation
d. postzygotic isolation

b. sexual selection

17

Under the biological species concept, what criteria must organisms fulfill in order to be of the same biological species?
a. being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
b. having physical similarities
c. adapting to the environment in the same way
d. having 99% of their genes in common

a. being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

18

What type of reproductive isolating mechanism is described by a situation in which the number of chromosomes prevents two different species from interbreeding?
a. habitat isolation
b. temporal isolation
c. behavioral isolation
d. gametic isolation

d. gametic isolation

19

Which of the following describes allopatric speciation?
a. A flowering plant species evolves from a non-flowering plant ancestor. Both species are found in the same habitat.
b. A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. The two subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.
c. One population breeds in the fall; another population breeds in the spring.
d. A male horse and a female donkey mate, producing a sterile mule.

c. One population breeds in the fall; another population breeds in the spring.

20

A bird's feathers might have originally arisen for insulation, and only later were they utilized for flight. In this context, feathers are an example of a/n......
a. neoteny
b. exaptation
c. punctuated evolution
d. paedomorphosis

b. exaptation

21

You are examining the fossil record and notice that through time a series of fossils exhibits very little/no change. During the period of time you are studying, this fossil lineage can be described as exhibiting____.
a. genetic drift
b. punctuated equilibrium
c. gradual equilibrium
d. static equilibrium

d. static equilibrium

22

The Permian mass extinction is the result of all the following except...
a. 96% of marine animals going extinct
b. the formation of Pangea
c. volcanic eruptions
d. a meteor hitting the Earth

d. a meteor hitting the Earth

23

In an original population of 200 birds, 75% of the birds have shortened wingspans (recessive). Then this population is hit by a tsunami and 50 random birds are killed, leaving 54 birds with shortened wingspans out of the survivors. Assume that all the individuals are equally likely to be wiped out.
Calculate the frequencies of the dominant and recessive alleles of the original population.

dominant allele: 13%
recessive allele: 87%

24

In an original population of 200 birds, 75% of the birds have shortened wingspans (recessive). Then this population is hit by a tsunami and 50 random birds are killed, leaving 54 birds with shortened wingspans out of the survivors. Assume that all the individuals are equally likely to be wiped out.
Calculate the frequencies of the dominant and recessive alleles of the new population.

Dominant allele: 40%
recessive allele: 60%

25

In an original population of 200 birds, 75% of the birds have shortened wingspans (recessive). Then this population is hit by a tsunami and 50 random birds are killed, leaving 54 birds with shortened wingspans out of the survivors. Assume that all the individuals are equally likely to be wiped out.
What is the predicted frequency of heterozygotes in the new population?

48%

26

In an original population of 200 birds, 75% of the birds have shortened wingspans (recessive). Then this population is hit by a tsunami and 50 random birds are killed, leaving 54 birds with shortened wingspans out of the survivors. Assume that all the individuals are equally likely to be wiped out.
What number of birds are heterozygous in the new population?

72 heterozygotes

27

In an original population of 200 birds, 75% of the birds have shortened wingspans (recessive). Then this population is hit by a tsunami and 50 random birds are killed, leaving 54 birds with shortened wingspans out of the survivors. Assume that all the individuals are equally likely to be wiped out.
Assuming the tsunami was a random event, what type of mechanism of evolutions (meant whether it is a specific type of genetic drift or gene flow) occurred in this scenario? Why?

The tsunami event is an example of the bottleneck effect, which is a type of genetic drift. This is because the bottleneck effect results in a smaller population with a different frequency of alleles, as seen with this bird population.

28

In an original population of 200 birds, 75% of the birds have shortened wingspans (recessive). Then this population is hit by a tsunami and 50 random birds are killed, leaving 54 birds with shortened wingspans out of the survivors. Assume that all the individuals are equally likely to be wiped out.
Now, assume this is not a random event. Based on the change of the allele frequencies that you calculated from the original and new population, which one of the three types of natural selection is exhibited? Explain your answer and sketch a graph to support your answer.

The type of natural selection that is exhibited is directional selection because in the new population the frequency of the recessive allele decreased while the frequency of the dominant allele increased. In directional selection, one of the extremes, in this case the normal wingspan, is favored.

29

Several red foxes move into and mate with a silver fox population leading to a change in allele frequencies.
Which term applies to this phrase/ situation?
a. convergent evolution
b. vestigial structure
c. Paedomorphosis
d. divergent evolution
e. stabilizing selection
f. sympatric speciation
g. mass extinction
h. Population
i. postzygotic isolation
j. analogy
k Genetic drift
L. gene flow

L. gene flow

30

Occurred after the Cretaceous period
Which term applies to this phrase/ situation?
a. convergent evolution
b. vestigial structure
c. Paedomorphosis
d. divergent evolution
e. stabilizing selection
f. sympatric speciation
g. mass extinction
h. Population
i. postzygotic isolation
j. analogy
k Genetic drift
L. gene flow

g. mass extinction