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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (18)
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Obesity affects approximately ____ of the adult population in the United States.
a. 25%
b. 33%
c. 60%
d. 50%

b. 33%


Medication, such as Tums is a/an ____, which neutralizes ______.
a. Base; pyloric acid
b. Acid, gastric juice
c. Base, bacteria
d. Acid, bile

a. Base, pyloric acid

Pyloric acid is also known as HC1


What are the 4 stages of food digestion?

Ingestion, digestion, absorbtion, elimination


Fat digestion yields fatty acids and glycerol, whereas protein digestion yields amino acids ; both digestive processes
a. Are catalyzed by the same enzyme
b. Are exclusively intacellular processes in most organisms
c. Add a water molecule to break bonds (hydrolysis)
d. Require ATP as an energy source

c. Add a water molecule to break bonds (hydrolysis)


What is the main function of salivary amylase?

Salivary amylase breaks down starch


An individual begins to cough and complains that their food "went down the wrong pipe" Because of your knowledge of the digestive system, you explain that their epiglottis was in the ____ position, causing the food to enter the ______.

The epiglottis was in the up position, leading the food to enter the trachea


Where does peristalsis take place / accomplished?

Peristalsis is accomplished by the smooth muscle of the espohagus


Stomachs cells are moderately well accomplished to the acidity and protein- digesting activities of the stomachs by having _____?
a. A cell wall impermeable to acid
b. A thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells
c. A suffice to colony of H. pylori
d. A high level of secretion of enzymes by chief cells

b. A thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells


The inaccurate diagnosis of acid reflux disorders (such as heart burn) and ulcers has been improved by
a. The lowering of pH levels
b. X-ray technology
c. The diagnosis and treatment of H. Pylori infection
d. Colonoscopy

c. The diagnosis and treatment of H. Pylori infection


What does the large surface area in the small intestine directly facilitate?



a. Is manufactured by the pancreas
b. Breaks down fat in the duodenum
c. Increases the efficiency of pepsin action
d. Is normally an ingredient gastric juice

b. Breaks down fats in the duodenum


Why are villi found in the small intestine but not the stomache?

The small intestine uses the villi to increase its surface area and facilitate absorbtion. Absorbtion does not occur in the stomache


Distinguish between chemical and mechanical digestion

Chemical digestion is the use of enzymes, such as salivary amylase to break down starch. Mechanical digestion is chewing using your teeth to break down food


Explain how swallowing occurs and how food is directed away from the trachea

Your tongue pushes the food to the back of your mouth. Muscles that make up your esophagus systematically sequentially squeeze the food down your throat. Your epiglottis prevents your food from entering your trachea by "closing the trachea" which means you are not technically breathing when you swallow.


Malnutrition vs Obesity

Malnutrition occurs when people do not eat healthily, or are not recieveing the right vitamins and minerals. IT DOES NOT MEAN UNDERFED! You can be malnourished and obese. Obesity occurs when your BMI is over 30 for your height and weight. Obesity can occur because of genetics, but is a main factor when people do not eat correctly and do not exercise


What are the essential amino acids?

Essential amino acids aren't already found/ synthesized in/by the organism and have to be added to the diet.


What is basal metabolic rate?

the rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm.


What are vitamins and minerals? Why are they important to the diet?

Vitamins and minerals are considered essential nutrients—because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They help heal bones, wounds, and your immune system. They also convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage.